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Sensing Systems for Respiration Monitoring: A Technical Systematic Review
Review

The Importance of Respiratory Rate Monitoring: From Healthcare to Sport and Exercise

1
Department of Movement, Human and Health Sciences, University of Rome “Foro Italico”, 00135 Rome, Italy
2
Unit of Measurements and Biomedical Instrumentation, Department of Engineering, Università Campus Bio-Medico di Roma, Via Alvaro del Portillo, 21, 00128 Rome, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Sensors 2020, 20(21), 6396; https://doi.org/10.3390/s20216396
Received: 16 October 2020 / Revised: 5 November 2020 / Accepted: 8 November 2020 / Published: 9 November 2020
Respiratory rate is a fundamental vital sign that is sensitive to different pathological conditions (e.g., adverse cardiac events, pneumonia, and clinical deterioration) and stressors, including emotional stress, cognitive load, heat, cold, physical effort, and exercise-induced fatigue. The sensitivity of respiratory rate to these conditions is superior compared to that of most of the other vital signs, and the abundance of suitable technological solutions measuring respiratory rate has important implications for healthcare, occupational settings, and sport. However, respiratory rate is still too often not routinely monitored in these fields of use. This review presents a multidisciplinary approach to respiratory monitoring, with the aim to improve the development and efficacy of respiratory monitoring services. We have identified thirteen monitoring goals where the use of the respiratory rate is invaluable, and for each of them we have described suitable sensors and techniques to monitor respiratory rate in specific measurement scenarios. We have also provided a physiological rationale corroborating the importance of respiratory rate monitoring and an original multidisciplinary framework for the development of respiratory monitoring services. This review is expected to advance the field of respiratory monitoring and favor synergies between different disciplines to accomplish this goal. View Full-Text
Keywords: respiratory frequency; respiratory monitoring; technologies; sensors; wearables; vital signs; stress; breathing control; measurement scenario; patient monitoring respiratory frequency; respiratory monitoring; technologies; sensors; wearables; vital signs; stress; breathing control; measurement scenario; patient monitoring
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MDPI and ACS Style

Nicolò, A.; Massaroni, C.; Schena, E.; Sacchetti, M. The Importance of Respiratory Rate Monitoring: From Healthcare to Sport and Exercise. Sensors 2020, 20, 6396. https://doi.org/10.3390/s20216396

AMA Style

Nicolò A, Massaroni C, Schena E, Sacchetti M. The Importance of Respiratory Rate Monitoring: From Healthcare to Sport and Exercise. Sensors. 2020; 20(21):6396. https://doi.org/10.3390/s20216396

Chicago/Turabian Style

Nicolò, Andrea, Carlo Massaroni, Emiliano Schena, and Massimo Sacchetti. 2020. "The Importance of Respiratory Rate Monitoring: From Healthcare to Sport and Exercise" Sensors 20, no. 21: 6396. https://doi.org/10.3390/s20216396

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