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Open AccessArticle

Diagnosis of Occlusal Tooth Wear Using 3D Imaging of Optical Coherence Tomography Ex Vivo

1
Department of Cariology and Operative Dentistry Department, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, 1-5-45, Yushima, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8549, Japan
2
Department of Operative Dentistry, Graduate School of Medicine, Dentistry and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Okayama University, 2-5-1 Shikata-cho, Kita-ku, Okayama 700-8525, Japan
3
Biomimetics Biomaterials Biophotonics Biomechanics & Technology Laboratory, Department of Restorative Dentistry, University of Washington, 1959 NE Pacific Street, Seattle, WA 98195-7456, USA
4
Center of Advanced Medicine for Dental and Oral Diseases, Department for Advanced Dental Research, National Center for Geriatrics and Gerontology, Aichi 474-8511, Japan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Sensors 2020, 20(21), 6016; https://doi.org/10.3390/s20216016
Received: 21 September 2020 / Revised: 9 October 2020 / Accepted: 21 October 2020 / Published: 23 October 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensing and Imaging Technology in Dentistry)
The aim of this study was to assess the utility of 3D imaging of optical coherence tomography (OCT) for the diagnosis of occlusal tooth wear ex vivo. Sixty-three extracted human molars with or without visible tooth wear were collected to take digital intraoral radiography and 3D OCT images. The degree of tooth wear was evaluated by 12 examiners and scored using 4-rank scale: 1—slight enamel wear; 2—distinct enamel wear; 3—tooth wear with slight dentin exposure; 4—tooth wear with distinct involvement of dentin. The degree of tooth wear was validated by the histological view of confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). The sensitivity, specificity, and area under the curve (AUC) of receiver operating characteristic analysis were calculated. Diagnostic accuracy was compared with the agreement with CLSM observation using weighted kappa. The results were statistically analyzed at a significance level of α = 0.05. Three-dimensional OCT showed significantly higher sensitivity (p < 0.05) for all the diagnostic thresholds of enamel wear and dentin exposure than digital radiography (0.82, 0.85, and 0.79 vs. 0.56, 0.52, and 0.57, respectively). Three-dimensional OCT showed higher AUC and kappa coefficients than digital radiography (p < 0.05), where mean AUC and Kappa values were 0.95 and 0.76 for OCT and 0.92 and 0.47 for radiography, respectively. No significant difference of specificity was observed (p > 0.05). Three-dimensional OCT could visualize and estimate the degree of tooth wear and detect the dentin exposure at the tooth wear surface accurately and reproducibly. Consequently, a new guideline for tooth wear assessment can be proposed using OCT. View Full-Text
Keywords: occlusal tooth wear; erosive tooth wear; SS-OCT; 3D imaging; enamel thickness; dentin exposure; demineralization occlusal tooth wear; erosive tooth wear; SS-OCT; 3D imaging; enamel thickness; dentin exposure; demineralization
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MDPI and ACS Style

Kashiwa, M.; Shimada, Y.; Sadr, A.; Yoshiyama, M.; Sumi, Y.; Tagami, J. Diagnosis of Occlusal Tooth Wear Using 3D Imaging of Optical Coherence Tomography Ex Vivo. Sensors 2020, 20, 6016. https://doi.org/10.3390/s20216016

AMA Style

Kashiwa M, Shimada Y, Sadr A, Yoshiyama M, Sumi Y, Tagami J. Diagnosis of Occlusal Tooth Wear Using 3D Imaging of Optical Coherence Tomography Ex Vivo. Sensors. 2020; 20(21):6016. https://doi.org/10.3390/s20216016

Chicago/Turabian Style

Kashiwa, Misa; Shimada, Yasushi; Sadr, Alireza; Yoshiyama, Masahiro; Sumi, Yasunori; Tagami, Junji. 2020. "Diagnosis of Occlusal Tooth Wear Using 3D Imaging of Optical Coherence Tomography Ex Vivo" Sensors 20, no. 21: 6016. https://doi.org/10.3390/s20216016

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