Next Article in Journal
Robust Inertial Measurement Unit-Based Attitude Determination Kalman Filter for Kinematically Constrained Links
Previous Article in Journal
Optimization of Reconfigurable Satellite Constellations Using Simulated Annealing and Genetic Algorithm
Article Menu
Issue 4 (February-2) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle

ID Insertion and Data Tracking with Frequency Offset for Physical Wireless Parameter Conversion Sensor Networks

1
Department Electrical & Computer Engineering, Shinshu University, Nagano 380-8553, Japan
2
Department Electronics Engineering and Computer Science, Fukuoka University, Fukuoka 814-0180, Japan
3
Advanced Wireless and Communication Research Center (AWCC), The University of Electro-Communications, Tokyo 182-8585, Japan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
This paper is an extended version of our paper published in Sakai, T.; Takyu, O.; Shirai, K.; Ohta, M.; Fujii, T.; Sasamori, F.; Handa, S. Data Tracking Using Frequency Offset and SIC for Physical Wireless Conversion Sensor Networks. In Proceedings of the 2017 IEEE Wireless Communications and Networking Conference Workshops (WCNCW), San Francisco, CA, USA, 19–22 March 2017.
Sensors 2019, 19(4), 767; https://doi.org/10.3390/s19040767
Received: 26 December 2018 / Revised: 29 January 2019 / Accepted: 6 February 2019 / Published: 13 February 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Sensor Networks)
  |  
PDF [922 KB, uploaded 13 February 2019]
  |     |  

Abstract

As the applications of the internet of things are becoming widely diversified, wireless sensor networks require real-time data reception, accommodation of access from several sensors, and low power consumption. In physical wireless parameter conversion sensor networks (PhyC-SN), all the sensors use frequency shift keying as the modulation scheme and then access the channel to the fusion center, simultaneously. As a result, the fusion center can recognize the statistical tendency of all the sensing results at a time from the frequency spectrum of the received signal. However, the information source, i.e., the sensor, cannot be specified from the received signal because no ID-indicating sensor is inserted to the signal. The data-tracking technique for tracing the time continuity of the sensing results is available for decomposing the sequence of the sensing results per sensor but the error tracking, which is a wrong recognition between the sensing results and the sensor, occurs owing to the similarity of the sensing results. This paper proposes the sensing result separation technique using a fractional carrier frequency offset (CFO) for PhyC-SN. In the proposed scheme, the particular fractional CFO is assigned to each user and it is useful for the ID specifying sensor. The fractional CFO causes inter-carrier interference (ICI). The ICI cancellation of the narrowband wireless communications is proposed. The two types of data-tracking techniques are proposed and are selectively used by the fusion center. Since the proposed data-tracking technique is multi-dimensional, high accuracy of data tracking is achieved even under the similar tendency of the sensing results. Based on computer simulation, we elucidate the advantage of the proposed sensing results separation. View Full-Text
Keywords: frequency offset; interference cancellation; wireless sensor networks; data tracking frequency offset; interference cancellation; wireless sensor networks; data tracking
Figures

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
SciFeed

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Takyu, O.; Shirai, K.; Ohta, M.; Fujii, T. ID Insertion and Data Tracking with Frequency Offset for Physical Wireless Parameter Conversion Sensor Networks. Sensors 2019, 19, 767.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Sensors EISSN 1424-8220 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top