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Open AccessArticle

Fuzzy Logic and Bio-Inspired Firefly Algorithm Based Routing Scheme in Intrabody Nanonetworks

1
School of Electronic and Information Engineering, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an 710049, China
2
School of Computer Science, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi’an 710119, China
3
School of Management, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an 710049, China
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Sensors 2019, 19(24), 5526; https://doi.org/10.3390/s19245526
Received: 17 November 2019 / Revised: 3 December 2019 / Accepted: 6 December 2019 / Published: 13 December 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wireless Body Area Networks for Health Applications)
An intrabody nanonetwork (IBNN) is composed of nanoscale (NS) devices, implanted inside the human body for collecting diverse physiological information for diagnostic and treatment purposes. The unique constraints of these NS devices in terms of energy, storage and computational resources are the primary challenges in the effective designing of routing protocols in IBNNs. Our proposed work explicitly considers these limitations and introduces a novel energy-efficient routing scheme based on a fuzzy logic and bio-inspired firefly algorithm. Our proposed fuzzy logic-based correlation region selection and bio-inspired firefly algorithm based nano biosensors (NBSs) nomination jointly contribute to energy conservation by minimizing transmission of correlated spatial data. Our proposed fuzzy logic-based correlation region selection mechanism aims at selecting those correlated regions for data aggregation that are enriched in terms of energy and detected information. While, for the selection of NBSs, we proposed a new bio-inspired firefly algorithm fitness function. The fitness function considers the transmission history and residual energy of NBSs to avoid exhaustion of NBSs in transmitting invaluable information. We conduct extensive simulations using the Nano-SIM tool to validate the in-depth impact of our proposed scheme in saving energy resources, reducing end-to-end delay and improving packet delivery ratio. The detailed comparison of our proposed scheme with different scenarios and flooding scheme confirms the significance of the optimized selection of correlated regions and NBSs in improving network lifetime and packet delivery ratio while reducing the average end-to-end delay. View Full-Text
Keywords: intrabody nanonetworks; fuzzy logic; firefly algorithm; energy-efficient routing protocol; electromagnetic communication in the terahertz band intrabody nanonetworks; fuzzy logic; firefly algorithm; energy-efficient routing protocol; electromagnetic communication in the terahertz band
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Fahim, H.; Li, W.; Javaid, S.; Sadiq Fareed, M.M.; Ahmed, G.; Khattak, M.K. Fuzzy Logic and Bio-Inspired Firefly Algorithm Based Routing Scheme in Intrabody Nanonetworks. Sensors 2019, 19, 5526.

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