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Open AccessArticle

Dissolved Carbon Dioxide Sensing Platform for Freshwater and Saline Water Applications: Characterization and Validation in Aquaculture Environments

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CIQUP-Chemistry Research Unit, University of Porto, 4169-007 Porto, Portugal
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Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Faculty of Sciences, University of Porto, 4169-007 Porto, Portugal
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INESCTEC-Institute for Systems and Computer Engineering, Technology and Science, 4200-465 Porto, Portugal
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CIIMAR—Interdisciplinary Centre of Marine and Environmental Research, 4450-208 Matosinhos, Portugal
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Department of General and Physical Chemistry, Faculty of Natural Sciences, University of Pécs, H-7624 Pécs, Hungary
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Department of Physics, School of Sciences and Technology, University of Trás-os-Montes e Alto Douro, 5001-801 Vila Real, Portugal
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Department of Physics and Astronomy, Faculty of Sciences, University of Porto, 4169-007 Porto, Portugal
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Department of Biology, Faculty of Sciences, University of Porto, 4169-007 Porto, Portugal
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Sensors 2019, 19(24), 5513; https://doi.org/10.3390/s19245513
Received: 31 October 2019 / Revised: 28 November 2019 / Accepted: 10 December 2019 / Published: 13 December 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Chemical Sensors)
A sensing configuration for the real-time monitoring, detection, and quantification of dissolved carbon dioxide (dCO2) was developed for aquaculture and other applications in freshwater and saline water. A chemical sensing membrane, based on a colorimetric indicator, is combined with multimode optical fiber and a dual wavelength light-emitting diode (LED) to measure the dCO2-induced absorbance changes in a self-referenced ratiometric scheme. The detection and processing were achieved with an embeded solution having a mini spectrometer and microcontroller. For optrode calibration, chemical standard solutions using sodium carbonate in acid media were used. Preliminary results in a laboratory environment showed sensitivity for small added amounts of CO2 (0.25 mg·L−1). Accuracy and response time were not affected by the type of solution, while precision was affected by salinity. Calibration in freshwater showed a limit of detection (LOD) and a limit of quantification (LOQ) of 1.23 and 1.87 mg·L−1, respectively. Results in saline water (2.5%) showed a LOD and LOQ of 1.05 and 1.16 mg·L−1, respectively. Generally, performance was improved when moving from fresh to saline water. Studies on the dynamics of dissolved CO2 in a recirculating shallow raceway system (SRS+RAS) prototype showed higher precision than the tested commercial sensor. The new sensor is a compact and robust device, and unlike other sensors used in aquaculture, stirring is not required for correct and fast detection. Tests performed showed that this new sensor has a fast accurate detection as well as a strong potential for assessing dCO2 dynamics in aquaculture applications. View Full-Text
Keywords: optical sensor; chemical optrode; dissolved carbon dioxide; aquaculture; optical fiber; colorimetric sensor optical sensor; chemical optrode; dissolved carbon dioxide; aquaculture; optical fiber; colorimetric sensor
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MDPI and ACS Style

Mendes, J.P.; Coelho, L.; Kovacs, B.; Almeida, J.M.M.M.d.; Pereira, C.M.; Jorge, P.A.S.; Borges, M.T. Dissolved Carbon Dioxide Sensing Platform for Freshwater and Saline Water Applications: Characterization and Validation in Aquaculture Environments. Sensors 2019, 19, 5513. https://doi.org/10.3390/s19245513

AMA Style

Mendes JP, Coelho L, Kovacs B, Almeida JMMMd, Pereira CM, Jorge PAS, Borges MT. Dissolved Carbon Dioxide Sensing Platform for Freshwater and Saline Water Applications: Characterization and Validation in Aquaculture Environments. Sensors. 2019; 19(24):5513. https://doi.org/10.3390/s19245513

Chicago/Turabian Style

Mendes, J.P.; Coelho, L.; Kovacs, B.; Almeida, J.M.M.M. d.; Pereira, C.M.; Jorge, P.A.S.; Borges, M.T. 2019. "Dissolved Carbon Dioxide Sensing Platform for Freshwater and Saline Water Applications: Characterization and Validation in Aquaculture Environments" Sensors 19, no. 24: 5513. https://doi.org/10.3390/s19245513

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