This paper presents a cognitive satellite communication based wireless sensor network, which combines the wireless sensor network and the cognitive satellite terrestrial network. To address the conflict between the continuously increasing demand and the spectrum scarcity in the space network, the cognitive satellite terrestrial network becomes a promising candidate for future hybrid wireless networks. With the higher transmit capacity demand in satellite networks, explicit concerns on efficient resource allocation in the cognitive network have gained more attention. In this background, we propose a sensing-based dynamic spectrum sharing scheme for the cognitive satellite user, which is able to maximize the ergodic capacity of the satellite user with the interference of the primary terrestrial user below an acceptable average level. Firstly, the cognitive satellite user monitors the channel allocated to the terrestrial user through the wireless sensor network; then, it adjusts the transmit power based on the sensing results. If a terrestrial user is busy, the satellite user can access the channel with constrained power to avoid deteriorating the communication quality of the terrestrial user. Otherwise, if the terrestrial user is idle, the satellite user allocates the transmit power based on its benefit to enhance the capacity. Since the sensing-based dynamic spectrum sharing optimization problem can be modified into a nonlinear fraction programming problem in perfect/imperfect sensing conditions, respectively, we solve them by the Lagrange duality method. Computer simulations have shown that, compared with the opportunistic spectrum access, the proposed method can increase the channel capacity more than
in a perfect sensing scenario. In an imperfect sensing scenario,
dB, the optimal sensing time achieving the highest ergodic capacity is about 2.34 ms when the frame duration is 10 ms.
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