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Open AccessArticle

Performance and Long Distance Data Acquisition via LoRa Technology of a Tubular Plant Microbial Fuel Cell Located in a Paddy Field in West Kalimantan, Indonesia

1
Environmental Technology, Wageningen University & Research; Bornse Weilanden 9, 6708WG Wageningen, The Netherlands
2
Government of Landak Regency, West Kalimantan Province, 79357 Ngabang, Indonesia
3
Plant-e BV, Mansholtlaan 4, 6708PA Wageningen, The Netherlands
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Sensors 2019, 19(21), 4647; https://doi.org/10.3390/s19214647
Received: 9 October 2019 / Revised: 22 October 2019 / Accepted: 23 October 2019 / Published: 25 October 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Biosensors)
A Plant Microbial Fuel Cell (Plant-MFCs) has been studied both in the lab and in a field. So far, field studies were limited to a more conventional Plant-MFC design, which submerges the anode in the soil and places the cathode above the soil surface. However, for a large scale application a tubular Plant-MFC is considered more practical since it needs no topsoil excavation. In this study, 1 m length tubular design Plant-MFC was installed in triplicate in a paddy field located in West Kalimantan, Indonesia. The Plant-MFC reactors were operated for four growing seasons. The rice paddy was grown in a standard cultivation process without any additional treatment due to the reactor instalation. An online data acquisition using LoRa technology was developed to investigate the performance of the tubular Plant-MFC over the final whole rice paddy growing season. Overall, the four crop seasons, the Plant-MFC installation did not show a complete detrimental negative effect on rice paddy growth. Based on continuous data analysis during the fourth crop season, a continuous electricity generation was achieved during a wet period in the crop season. Electricity generation dynamics were observed before, during and after the wet periods that were explained by paddy field management. A maximum daily average density from the triplicate Plant-MFCs reached 9.6 mW/m2 plant growth area. In one crop season, 9.5–15 Wh/m2 electricity can be continuously generated at an average of 0.4 ± 0.1 mW per meter tube. The Plant-MFC also shows a potential to be used as a bio sensor, e.g., rain event indicator, during a dry period between the crop seasons. View Full-Text
Keywords: tubular; plant; microbial fuel cell; electricity; rice; paddy fields; LoRa; bioelectrochemical system tubular; plant; microbial fuel cell; electricity; rice; paddy fields; LoRa; bioelectrochemical system
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MDPI and ACS Style

Sudirjo, E.; de Jager, P.; Buisman, C.J.N.; Strik, D.P.B.T.B. Performance and Long Distance Data Acquisition via LoRa Technology of a Tubular Plant Microbial Fuel Cell Located in a Paddy Field in West Kalimantan, Indonesia. Sensors 2019, 19, 4647. https://doi.org/10.3390/s19214647

AMA Style

Sudirjo E, de Jager P, Buisman CJN, Strik DPBTB. Performance and Long Distance Data Acquisition via LoRa Technology of a Tubular Plant Microbial Fuel Cell Located in a Paddy Field in West Kalimantan, Indonesia. Sensors. 2019; 19(21):4647. https://doi.org/10.3390/s19214647

Chicago/Turabian Style

Sudirjo, Emilius; de Jager, Pim; Buisman, Cees J.N.; Strik, David P.B.T.B. 2019. "Performance and Long Distance Data Acquisition via LoRa Technology of a Tubular Plant Microbial Fuel Cell Located in a Paddy Field in West Kalimantan, Indonesia" Sensors 19, no. 21: 4647. https://doi.org/10.3390/s19214647

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