Slot Self-Allocation Based MAC Protocol for Energy Harvesting Nano-Networks
- The computational resource constraint. Because of the small size of nano-node, the actual nano-processor is limited in size and, thus, in the number of transistors. Therefore, MAC protocols for nano-networks should be simple and easy to be implemented.
- The very limited energy storage, and the implementation of energy harvesting systems. The small size of nano-node also limits the energy storage . Hence, energy harvesting systems (e.g., zinc-oxide nano-wires  and piezoelectric nano-generators [25,26]) are proposed to be implemented in nano-nodes to capture energy from the environment . However, because of the restrictions of technical conditions, the energy harvesting speed is still not high enough; hence, MAC protocols should be energy efficient and have the ability to adapt to the energy fluctuations of nano-node.
- Due to the expectedly very high nano-node density, collisions could happen during transmissions and result in transmission failures. Hence, novel MAC protocols are needed to allocate the channel resources and to coordinate concurrent transmission among nano-nodes.
- Traditional carrier-sensing based MAC protocols are not suitable for nano-networks. Due to the energy constraint of nano-node and high path loss of THz band, it is currently not feasible to generate high-power continuous carrier signals at THz frequencies . Hence, pulse-based modulation schemes are recommended [28,29]. Therefore, the peculiarities of THz signals and pulse-based modulation methods should be taken into consideration for MAC protocols.
- Aiming at the high density of nano-nodes and resulting high collision probability during data transmissions in nano-networks, a slot self-allocation based MAC protocol is proposed to reduce transmission failure probability and improve energy efficiency.
- For different nano-network structures, i.e., centralized and distributed nano-networks, different transmission schemes are designed, respectively. Furthermore, the performances of the two transmission schemes are analyzed, including energy consumption, packet delay and throughput.
- In the simulations, the performance of SSA-MAC is simulated with different values of parameters. According to the results, the proposed SSA-MAC outperforms PHLAME, RIH-MAC and EEWNSN MAC protocols.
2. Related Work
3. System Model
3.1. TS-OOK Modulation Scheme
3.2. Network Structure
4. The Proposed SSA-MAC Protocol
4.1. SAS Division and Allocation Methods
4.2. Transmission Scheme in Centralized Nano-Networks
- In the initial stage, nano-nodes operate the time slot allocation procedures, they set their first time slots as RBSs, and allocate one SAS by their own IDs according to Equation (1), and set the other time slots as SSs.
- In RBSs, nano-nodes receive broadcast packets from the nano-controller for function updating and time synchronization.
- In SSs, nano-nodes do not send or receive packets, but energy harvesting and data collecting systems still work.
- Before transmitting data packets, nano-nodes check whether the energy is enough or not. If yes, they send the data packet in their corresponding time slots. Otherwise, they wait for the next time frame. According to Equation (3), the length of time frame is set larger than the time of harvesting enough energy for transmitting one data packet and receiving one ACK/NACK packet.
- When a nano-node collects enough data and need to send it to the nano-controller, it waits until its own SAS and sends the data packet accordingly. Then, it waits for ACK packet from the nano-controller. If the nano-node receives the corresponding ACK packet, this transmission ends. If nano-node does not receive the ACK for a timeout or receives the Negative ACKnowledgement (NACK) from the nano-controller, it will retransmit the data packet in the next time frame. The timeout equals to .
- In particular, when a nano-node does not have data to be sent to the nano-controller in its SAS, it can send a Clear To Receive (CTR) packet to the nano-controller. After receiving the CTR, the nano-controller can send data to the nano-node for specific function updating, time synchronization, etc.
4.3. Transmission Scheme in Distributed Nano-Networks
- In the initial stage, the operations of nano-nodes in distributed nano-networks are identical with centralized nano-networks, i.e., allocating the first time slots as RBSs, one time slot as SAS chosen by their IDs, and the other time slots as SSs.
- In RBSs, on the one hand, nano-nodes can run time synchronization methods or receive time packets from special nano-controllers to synchronize. On the other hand, nano-nodes can do neighbor discovering process by broadcasting small packets with their own IDs; any nano-node who receives the packets will record the corresponding nano-nodes as its neighbors. However, nano-nodes do not need to execute the above procedures in every time frame.
- In SASs, nano-nodes start to listen to the channel and receive data from other nano-nodes. If the data packet is received correctly, the nano-node will reply an ACK packet. If not, it will reply a NACK packet. The nano-nodes only receive packets with sufficient energy, i.e., the energy of nano-nodes exceeds the energy of receiving one data packet and transmitting one ACK/NACK packet. Otherwise, they will wait for the next time frame and harvest energy from the environment.
- When a nano-node needs to send or forward a packet to a specific nano-node, it firstly calculates the SAS of the receiving nano-node according to Equation (1), and then it turns the corresponding SS into transmitting slot to send the packet. If the transmitting nano-node receives ACK from the receiving nano-node, the transmission ends. If it does not receive the ACK for a timeout or receive NACK from the receiver, the data packet will be retransmitted in the next time frame. As in centralized nano-networks, The nano-nodes only begin the transmission with sufficient energy.
- As in centralized nano-network, nano-nodes in distributed nano-networks also can harvest energy and collect data from the environment in SSs.
4.4. Packet Format
5. Performance Analysis
5.1. Energy Consumption
5.1.1. Energy Consumption of Transmitting Packets
5.1.2. Energy Consumption of Receiving Packets
5.2. Packet Delay
6. Performance Evaluation
6.1. Performance Metrics and Parameters Setting
6.2. Performance Comparison of Different MAC Protocols
6.2.1. Performance in Centralized Nano-Networks
6.2.2. Performance in Distributed Nano-Networks
Conflicts of Interest
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|Nano-node density||[0.1–2.5] nodes/|
|Pulse duration||100 fs|
|Symbol duration||10 ps|
|Pulse energy||1000 aJ|
|Transmission range of nano-node||5 mm|
|Transmission range of nano-controller||10 mm|
|Radius of the network||10 mm|
|Data packet size||100 bytes|
|Control packet size||6 bytes|
|Energy harvesting speed||[1–5] pJ/s|
|Ratio of symbol “1” in one packet ,||0.5|
|Pulse integration time||1000 fs|
|Packet error rate|
|Updating coefficient ,|
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Wang, W.-L.; Wang, C.-C.; Yao, X.-W. Slot Self-Allocation Based MAC Protocol for Energy Harvesting Nano-Networks. Sensors 2019, 19, 4646. https://doi.org/10.3390/s19214646
Wang W-L, Wang C-C, Yao X-W. Slot Self-Allocation Based MAC Protocol for Energy Harvesting Nano-Networks. Sensors. 2019; 19(21):4646. https://doi.org/10.3390/s19214646Chicago/Turabian Style
Wang, Wan-Liang, Chao-Chao Wang, and Xin-Wei Yao. 2019. "Slot Self-Allocation Based MAC Protocol for Energy Harvesting Nano-Networks" Sensors 19, no. 21: 4646. https://doi.org/10.3390/s19214646