The emulation of human behavior for autonomous problem solving has been an interdisciplinary field of research. Generally, classical control systems are used for static environments, where external disturbances and changes in internal parameters can be fully modulated before or neglected during operation. However, classical control systems are inadequate at addressing environmental uncertainty. By contrast, autonomous systems, which were first studied in the field of control systems, can be applied in an unknown environment. This paper summarizes the state of the art autonomous systems by first discussing the definition, modeling, and system structure of autonomous systems and then providing a perspective on how autonomous systems can be integrated with advanced resources (e.g., the Internet of Things, big data, Over-the-Air, and federated learning). Finally, what comes after reaching full autonomy is briefly discussed.
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License
which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited