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Open AccessArticle

Highly Selective, ppb-Level Xylene Gas Detection by Sn2+-Doped NiO Flower-Like Microspheres Prepared by a One-Step Hydrothermal Method

1
State Key Laboratory of Materials-Oriented Chemical Engineering, College of Chemical Engineering, Nanjing Tech University, No. 5 XinMofan Road, Nanjing 210009, China
2
School of Instrument Science and Opto-Electronics Engineering and Research Center for Sensor Science and Technology, Hefei University of Technology, No. 193 Tunxi Road, Hefei 230009, China
3
School of Electrical Engineering & Intelligentization, Dongguan University of Technology, No. 1 Daxue Rd, Dongguan 523808, China
4
Network Information Center, Nanjing Tech University, No. 5 XinMofan Road, Nanjing 210009, China
5
College of Electrical Engineering and Control Science, Nanjing Tech University, No. 5 XinMofan Road, Nanjing 210009, China
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Co-first author.
Sensors 2019, 19(13), 2958; https://doi.org/10.3390/s19132958
Received: 7 May 2019 / Revised: 21 June 2019 / Accepted: 25 June 2019 / Published: 4 July 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Nanomaterials based Gas Sensors)
Detecting xylene gas is an important means of avoiding human harm from gas poisoning. A precise measurement demands that the gas sensor used must have high sensitivity, high selectivity, and low working temperature. To meet these requirements, in this study, Sn2+-doped NiO flower-like microspheres (SNM) with different amounts of Sn2+ synthesized by a one-step hydrothermal process were investigated. The responses of gas sensors based on different Sn2+-doped NiO materials for various targeting gases were fully characterized. It was found that all of the synthesized materials exhibited the best gas response at a working temperature of 180 degrees, which was much lower than the previously reported working temperature range of 300–500 degrees. When exposed to 10 ppm xylene, the 8 at% Sn2+-doped NiO sensor (mol ratio) exhibited the highest response, with a value of 30 (Rg/Ra). More significantly, the detection limit of the 8 at% Sn2+-doped NiO sensor for xylene is down in the ppb level. The Sn2+-doped NiO material also exhibits excellent selectivity for other gases with long-term stability and repeatability. The significant improvement in the response to xylene can theoretically be attributed to a decrease in the intrinsic hole carrier concentration, higher amounts of adsorbed oxygen and active sites. View Full-Text
Keywords: one-step hydrothermal; Sn2+-doped NiO; flower-like microsphere; gas sensor; xylene one-step hydrothermal; Sn2+-doped NiO; flower-like microsphere; gas sensor; xylene
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MDPI and ACS Style

Lu, S.; Hu, X.; Zheng, H.; Qiu, J.; Tian, R.; Quan, W.; Min, X.; Ji, P.; Hu, Y.; Cheng, S.; Du, W.; Chen, X.; Cui, B.; Wang, X.; Zhang, W. Highly Selective, ppb-Level Xylene Gas Detection by Sn2+-Doped NiO Flower-Like Microspheres Prepared by a One-Step Hydrothermal Method. Sensors 2019, 19, 2958.

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