Radio frequency identification is one of the key techniques for Internet of Things, which has been widely adopted in many applications for identification. However, there exist various security and privacy issues in radio frequency identification (RFID) systems. Particularly, one of the most serious threats is to clone tags for the goal of counterfeiting goods, which causes great loss and danger to customers. To solve these issues, lots of authentication protocols are proposed based on physical unclonable functions that can ensure an anti-counterfeiting feature. However, most of the existing schemes require secret parameters to be stored in tags, which are vulnerable to physical attacks that can further lead to the breach of forward secrecy. Furthermore, as far as we know, none of the existing schemes are able to solve the security and privacy problems with good scalability. Since many existing schemes rely on exhaustive searches of the backend server to validate a tag and they are not scalable for applications with a large scale database. Hence, in this paper, we propose a lightweight RFID mutual authentication protocol with physically unclonable functions (PUFs). The performance analysis shows that our proposed scheme can ensure security and privacy efficiently in a scalable way.
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