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Article

Towards Reliable and Energy-Efficient Incremental Cooperative Communication for Wireless Body Area Networks

1
COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Islamabad 44000, Pakistan
2
Cameron Library, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB T6G 2J8, Canada
3
College of Applied Medical Sciences, King Saud University, Riyadh 11633, Saudi Arabia
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Faculty of Engineering, Dalhousie University, Halifax, NS B3J 4R2, Canada
5
Computer Information Science, Higher Colleges of Technology, Fujairah 4114, United Arab Emirates
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Yun Liu, Han-Chieh Chao, Pony Chu and Wendong Xiao
Sensors 2016, 16(3), 284; https://doi.org/10.3390/s16030284
Received: 7 December 2015 / Revised: 7 February 2016 / Accepted: 14 February 2016 / Published: 24 February 2016
In this study, we analyse incremental cooperative communication for wireless body area networks (WBANs) with different numbers of relays. Energy efficiency (EE) and the packet error rate (PER) are investigated for different schemes. We propose a new cooperative communication scheme with three-stage relaying and compare it to existing schemes. Our proposed scheme provides reliable communication with less PER at the cost of surplus energy consumption. Analytical expressions for the EE of the proposed three-stage cooperative communication scheme are also derived, taking into account the effect of PER. Later on, the proposed three-stage incremental cooperation is implemented in a network layer protocol; enhanced incremental cooperative critical data transmission in emergencies for static WBANs (EInCo-CEStat). Extensive simulations are conducted to validate the proposed scheme. Results of incremental relay-based cooperative communication protocols are compared to two existing cooperative routing protocols: cooperative critical data transmission in emergencies for static WBANs (Co-CEStat) and InCo-CEStat. It is observed from the simulation results that incremental relay-based cooperation is more energy efficient than the existing conventional cooperation protocol, Co-CEStat. The results also reveal that EInCo-CEStat proves to be more reliable with less PER and higher throughput than both of the counterpart protocols. However, InCo-CEStat has less throughput with a greater stability period and network lifetime. Due to the availability of more redundant links, EInCo-CEStat achieves a reduced packet drop rate at the cost of increased energy consumption. View Full-Text
Keywords: wireless body area networks; energy consumption; reliability; relaying; incremental cooperative communication; routing wireless body area networks; energy consumption; reliability; relaying; incremental cooperative communication; routing
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MDPI and ACS Style

Yousaf, S.; Javaid, N.; Qasim, U.; Alrajeh, N.; Khan, Z.A.; Ahmed, M. Towards Reliable and Energy-Efficient Incremental Cooperative Communication for Wireless Body Area Networks. Sensors 2016, 16, 284. https://doi.org/10.3390/s16030284

AMA Style

Yousaf S, Javaid N, Qasim U, Alrajeh N, Khan ZA, Ahmed M. Towards Reliable and Energy-Efficient Incremental Cooperative Communication for Wireless Body Area Networks. Sensors. 2016; 16(3):284. https://doi.org/10.3390/s16030284

Chicago/Turabian Style

Yousaf, Sidrah, Nadeem Javaid, Umar Qasim, Nabil Alrajeh, Zahoor A. Khan, and Mansoor Ahmed. 2016. "Towards Reliable and Energy-Efficient Incremental Cooperative Communication for Wireless Body Area Networks" Sensors 16, no. 3: 284. https://doi.org/10.3390/s16030284

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Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

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