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Sensors, Volume 14, Issue 1 (January 2014) – 102 articles , Pages 1-1901

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Open AccessEditorial
Sensors Best Paper Award 2014
Sensors 2014, 14(1), 1898-1901; https://doi.org/10.3390/s140101898 - 23 Jan 2014
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 6116
Abstract
In 2011, an annual award system was instituted to recognize outstanding Sensors papers that are related to sensing technologies and applications and meet the aims, scope and high standards of this journal [1–3]. This year, nominations were made by the Section Editor-in-Chiefs of [...] Read more.
In 2011, an annual award system was instituted to recognize outstanding Sensors papers that are related to sensing technologies and applications and meet the aims, scope and high standards of this journal [1–3]. This year, nominations were made by the Section Editor-in-Chiefs of Sensors from among all the papers published in 2010 to track citations. Reviews and full research articles were considered separately. [...] Full article
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Open AccessArticle
A Secure Trust Establishment Scheme for Wireless Sensor Networks
Sensors 2014, 14(1), 1877-1897; https://doi.org/10.3390/s140101877 - 22 Jan 2014
Cited by 21 | Viewed by 3909
Abstract
Trust establishment is an important tool to improve cooperation and enhance security in wireless sensor networks. The core of trust establishment is trust estimation. If a trust estimation method is not robust against attack and misbehavior, the trust values produced will be meaningless, [...] Read more.
Trust establishment is an important tool to improve cooperation and enhance security in wireless sensor networks. The core of trust establishment is trust estimation. If a trust estimation method is not robust against attack and misbehavior, the trust values produced will be meaningless, and system performance will be degraded. We present a novel trust estimation method that is robust against on-off attacks and persistent malicious behavior. Moreover, in order to aggregate recommendations securely, we propose using a modified one-step M-estimator scheme. The novelty of the proposed scheme arises from combining past misbehavior with current status in a comprehensive way. Specifically, we introduce an aggregated misbehavior component in trust estimation, which assists in detecting an on-off attack and persistent malicious behavior. In order to determine the current status of the node, we employ previous trust values and current measured misbehavior components. These components are combined to obtain a robust trust value. Theoretical analyses and evaluation results show that our scheme performs better than other trust schemes in terms of detecting an on-off attack and persistent misbehavior. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Sensor Networks)
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Open AccessArticle
A Spatial Division Clustering Method and Low Dimensional Feature Extraction Technique Based Indoor Positioning System
Sensors 2014, 14(1), 1850-1876; https://doi.org/10.3390/s140101850 - 22 Jan 2014
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 3321
Abstract
Indoor positioning systems based on the fingerprint method are widely used due to the large number of existing devices with a wide range of coverage. However, extensive positioning regions with a massive fingerprint database may cause high computational complexity and error margins, therefore [...] Read more.
Indoor positioning systems based on the fingerprint method are widely used due to the large number of existing devices with a wide range of coverage. However, extensive positioning regions with a massive fingerprint database may cause high computational complexity and error margins, therefore clustering methods are widely applied as a solution. However, traditional clustering methods in positioning systems can only measure the similarity of the Received Signal Strength without being concerned with the continuity of physical coordinates. Besides, outage of access points could result in asymmetric matching problems which severely affect the fine positioning procedure. To solve these issues, in this paper we propose a positioning system based on the Spatial Division Clustering (SDC) method for clustering the fingerprint dataset subject to physical distance constraints. With the Genetic Algorithm and Support Vector Machine techniques, SDC can achieve higher coarse positioning accuracy than traditional clustering algorithms. In terms of fine localization, based on the Kernel Principal Component Analysis method, the proposed positioning system outperforms its counterparts based on other feature extraction methods in low dimensionality. Apart from balancing online matching computational burden, the new positioning system exhibits advantageous performance on radio map clustering, and also shows better robustness and adaptability in the asymmetric matching problem aspect. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Physical Sensors)
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Open AccessArticle
Markov Jump Linear Systems-Based Position Estimation for Lower Limb Exoskeletons
Sensors 2014, 14(1), 1835-1849; https://doi.org/10.3390/s140101835 - 22 Jan 2014
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 3766
Abstract
In this paper, we deal with Markov Jump Linear Systems-based filtering applied to robotic rehabilitation. The angular positions of an impedance-controlled exoskeleton, designed to help stroke and spinal cord injured patients during walking rehabilitation, are estimated. Standard position estimate approaches adopt Kalman filters [...] Read more.
In this paper, we deal with Markov Jump Linear Systems-based filtering applied to robotic rehabilitation. The angular positions of an impedance-controlled exoskeleton, designed to help stroke and spinal cord injured patients during walking rehabilitation, are estimated. Standard position estimate approaches adopt Kalman filters (KF) to improve the performance of inertial measurement units (IMUs) based on individual link configurations. Consequently, for a multi-body system, like a lower limb exoskeleton, the inertial measurements of one link (e.g., the shank) are not taken into account in other link position estimation (e.g., the foot). In this paper, we propose a collective modeling of all inertial sensors attached to the exoskeleton, combining them in a Markovian estimation model in order to get the best information from each sensor. In order to demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach, simulation results regarding a set of human footsteps, with four IMUs and three encoders attached to the lower limb exoskeleton, are presented. A comparative study between the Markovian estimation system and the standard one is performed considering a wide range of parametric uncertainties. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wearable Gait Sensors)
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Open AccessArticle
Thermal Balance Analysis of a Micro-Thermoelectric Gas Sensor Using Catalytic Combustion of Hydrogen
Sensors 2014, 14(1), 1822-1834; https://doi.org/10.3390/s140101822 - 21 Jan 2014
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 3394
Abstract
A thermoelectric gas sensor (TGS) with a combustion catalyst is a calorimetric sensor that changes the small heat of catalytic combustion into a signal voltage. We analyzed the thermal balance of a TGS to quantitatively estimate the sensor parameters. The voltage signal of [...] Read more.
A thermoelectric gas sensor (TGS) with a combustion catalyst is a calorimetric sensor that changes the small heat of catalytic combustion into a signal voltage. We analyzed the thermal balance of a TGS to quantitatively estimate the sensor parameters. The voltage signal of a TGS was simulated, and the heat balance was calculated at two sections across the thermoelectric film of a TGS. The thermal resistances in the two sections were estimated from the thermal time constants of the experimental signal curves of the TGS. The catalytic combustion heat Qcatalyst required for 1 mV of ∆Vgas was calculated to be 46.1 μW. Using these parameters, we find from simulations for the device performance that the expected Qcatalyst for 200 and 1,000 ppm H2 was 3.69 μW and 11.7 μW, respectively. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Chemical Sensors)
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Open AccessArticle
Applicability of Time-Averaged Holography for Micro-Electro-Mechanical System Performing Non-Linear Oscillations
Sensors 2014, 14(1), 1805-1821; https://doi.org/10.3390/s140101805 - 21 Jan 2014
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2965
Abstract
Optical investigation of movable microsystem components using time-averaged holography is investigated in this paper. It is shown that even a harmonic excitation of a non-linear microsystem may result in an unpredictable chaotic motion. Analytical results between parameters of the chaotic oscillations and the [...] Read more.
Optical investigation of movable microsystem components using time-averaged holography is investigated in this paper. It is shown that even a harmonic excitation of a non-linear microsystem may result in an unpredictable chaotic motion. Analytical results between parameters of the chaotic oscillations and the formation of time-averaged fringes provide a deeper insight into computational and experimental interpretation of time-averaged MEMS holograms. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Physical Sensors)
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Open AccessArticle
Control Framework for Dexterous Manipulation Using Dynamic Visual Servoing and Tactile Sensors’ Feedback
Sensors 2014, 14(1), 1787-1804; https://doi.org/10.3390/s140101787 - 21 Jan 2014
Cited by 31 | Viewed by 3667
Abstract
Tactile sensors play an important role in robotics manipulation to perform dexterous and complex tasks. This paper presents a novel control framework to perform dexterous manipulation with multi-fingered robotic hands using feedback data from tactile and visual sensors. This control framework permits the [...] Read more.
Tactile sensors play an important role in robotics manipulation to perform dexterous and complex tasks. This paper presents a novel control framework to perform dexterous manipulation with multi-fingered robotic hands using feedback data from tactile and visual sensors. This control framework permits the definition of new visual controllers which allow the path tracking of the object motion taking into account both the dynamics model of the robot hand and the grasping force of the fingertips under a hybrid control scheme. In addition, the proposed general method employs optimal control to obtain the desired behaviour in the joint space of the fingers based on an indicated cost function which determines how the control effort is distributed over the joints of the robotic hand. Finally, authors show experimental verifications on a real robotic manipulation system for some of the controllers derived from the control framework. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tactile Sensors and Sensing Systems)
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Open AccessArticle
Estimating the Concentration and Biodegradability of Organic Matter in 22 Wastewater Treatment Plants Using Fluorescence Excitation Emission Matrices and Parallel Factor Analysis
Sensors 2014, 14(1), 1771-1786; https://doi.org/10.3390/s140101771 - 20 Jan 2014
Cited by 59 | Viewed by 3807
Abstract
This study aimed at monitoring the changes of fluorescent components in wastewater samples from 22 Korean biological wastewater treatment plants and exploring their prediction capabilities for total organic carbon (TOC), dissolved organic carbon (DOC), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD), and [...] Read more.
This study aimed at monitoring the changes of fluorescent components in wastewater samples from 22 Korean biological wastewater treatment plants and exploring their prediction capabilities for total organic carbon (TOC), dissolved organic carbon (DOC), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD), and the biodegradability of the wastewater using an optical sensing technique based on fluorescence excitation emission matrices and parallel factor analysis (EEM-PARAFAC). Three fluorescent components were identified from the samples by using EEM-PARAFAC, including protein-like (C1), fulvic-like (C2) and humic-like (C3) components. C1 showed the highest removal efficiencies for all the treatment types investigated here (69% ± 26%–81% ± 8%), followed by C2 (37% ± 27%–65% ± 35%), while humic-like component (i.e., C3) tended to be accumulated during the biological treatment processes. The percentage of C1 in total fluorescence (%C1) decreased from 54% ± 8% in the influents to 28% ± 8% in the effluents, while those of C2 and C3 (%C2 and %C3) increased from 43% ± 6% to 62% ± 9% and from 3% ± 7% to 10% ± 8%, respectively. The concentrations of TOC, DOC, BOD, and COD were the most correlated with the fluorescence intensity (Fmax) of C1 (r = 0.790–0.817), as compared with the other two fluorescent components. The prediction capability of C1 for TOC, BOD, and COD were improved by using multiple regression based on Fmax of C1 and suspended solids (SS) (r = 0.856–0.865), both of which can be easily monitored in situ. The biodegradability of organic matter in BOD/COD were significantly correlated with each PARAFAC component and their combinations (r = −0.598–0.613, p < 0.001), with the highest correlation coefficient shown for %C1. The estimation capability was further enhanced by using multiple regressions based on %C1, %C2 and C3/C2 (r = −0.691). Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Chemical Sensors)
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Open AccessArticle
Two-Stage System Based on a Software-Defined Radio for Stabilizing of Optical Frequency Combs in Long-Term Experiments
Sensors 2014, 14(1), 1757-1770; https://doi.org/10.3390/s140101757 - 20 Jan 2014
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 3011
Abstract
A passive optical resonator is a special sensor used for measurement of lengths on the nanometer and sub-nanometer scale. A stabilized optical frequency comb can provide an ultimate reference for measuring the wavelength of a tunable laser locked to the optical resonator. If [...] Read more.
A passive optical resonator is a special sensor used for measurement of lengths on the nanometer and sub-nanometer scale. A stabilized optical frequency comb can provide an ultimate reference for measuring the wavelength of a tunable laser locked to the optical resonator. If we lock the repetition and offset frequencies of the comb to a high-grade radiofrequency (RF) oscillator its relative frequency stability is transferred from the RF to the optical frequency domain. Experiments in the field of precise length metrology of low-expansion materials are usually of long-term nature so it is required that the optical frequency comb stay in operation for an extended period of time. The optoelectronic closed-loop systems used for stabilization of combs are usually based on traditional analog electronic circuits processing signals from photodetectors. From an experimental point of view, these setups are very complicated and sensitive to ambient conditions, especially in the optical part, therefore maintaining long-time operation is not easy. The research presented in this paper deals with a novel approach based on digital signal processing and a software-defined radio. We describe digital signal processing algorithms intended for keeping the femtosecond optical comb in a long-time stable operation. This need arose during specialized experiments involving measurements of optical frequencies of tunable continuous-wave lasers. The resulting system is capable of keeping the comb in lock for an extensive period of time (8 days or more) with the relative stability better than 1.6 × 10−11. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Physical Sensors)
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Open AccessArticle
Modeling and Characterization of the Implant Intra-Body Communication Based on Capacitive Coupling Using a Transfer Function Method
Sensors 2014, 14(1), 1740-1756; https://doi.org/10.3390/s140101740 - 20 Jan 2014
Cited by 22 | Viewed by 4724
Abstract
Implantable devices have important applications in biomedical sensor networks used for biomedical monitoring, diagnosis and treatment, etc. In this paper, an implant intra-body communication (IBC) method based on capacitive coupling has been proposed, and the modeling and characterization of this kind of [...] Read more.
Implantable devices have important applications in biomedical sensor networks used for biomedical monitoring, diagnosis and treatment, etc. In this paper, an implant intra-body communication (IBC) method based on capacitive coupling has been proposed, and the modeling and characterization of this kind of IBC has been investigated. Firstly, the transfer function of the implant IBC based on capacitive coupling was derived. Secondly, the corresponding parameters of the transfer function are discussed. Finally, both measurements and simulations based on the proposed transfer function were carried out, while some important conclusions have been achieved, which indicate that the achieved transfer function and conclusions are able to help to achieve an implant communication method with the highly desirable characteristics of low power consumption, high data rate, high transmission quality, etc. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomedical Sensors and Systems)
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Open AccessArticle
The Control of Tendon-Driven Dexterous Hands with Joint Simulation
Sensors 2014, 14(1), 1723-1739; https://doi.org/10.3390/s140101723 - 20 Jan 2014
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 3342
Abstract
An adaptive impedance control algorithm for tendon-driven dexterous hands is presented. The main idea of this algorithm is to compensate the output of the classical impedance control by an offset that is a proportion-integration-differentiation (PID) expression of force error. The adaptive impedance control [...] Read more.
An adaptive impedance control algorithm for tendon-driven dexterous hands is presented. The main idea of this algorithm is to compensate the output of the classical impedance control by an offset that is a proportion-integration-differentiation (PID) expression of force error. The adaptive impedance control can adjust the impedance parameters indirectly when the environment position and stiffness are uncertain. In addition, the position controller and inverse kinematics solver are specially designed for the tendon-driven hand. The performance of the proposed control algorithm is validated by using MATLAB and ADAMS software for joint simulation. ADAMS is a great software for virtual prototype analysis. A tendon-driven hand model is built and a control module is generated in ADAMS. Then the control system is built in MATLAB using the control module. The joint simulation results demonstrate fast response and robustness of the algorithm when the environment is not exactly known, so the algorithm is suitable for the control of tendon-driven dexterous hands. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Physical Sensors)
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Open AccessArticle
Wearable Gait Measurement System with an Instrumented Cane for Exoskeleton Control
Sensors 2014, 14(1), 1705-1722; https://doi.org/10.3390/s140101705 - 17 Jan 2014
Cited by 63 | Viewed by 6834
Abstract
In this research we introduce a wearable sensory system for motion intention estimation and control of exoskeleton robot. The system comprises wearable inertial motion sensors and shoe-embedded force sensors. The system utilizes an instrumented cane as a part of the interface between the [...] Read more.
In this research we introduce a wearable sensory system for motion intention estimation and control of exoskeleton robot. The system comprises wearable inertial motion sensors and shoe-embedded force sensors. The system utilizes an instrumented cane as a part of the interface between the user and the robot. The cane reflects the motion of upper limbs, and is used in terms of human inter-limb synergies. The developed control system provides assisted motion in coherence with the motion of other unassisted limbs. The system utilizes the instrumented cane together with body worn sensors, and provides assistance for start, stop and continuous walking. We verified the function of the proposed method and the developed wearable system through gait trials on treadmill and on ground. The achievement contributes to finding an intuitive and feasible interface between human and robot through wearable gait sensors for practical use of assistive technology. It also contributes to the technology for cognitively assisted locomotion, which helps the locomotion of physically challenged people. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wearable Gait Sensors)
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Open AccessArticle
Wireless Displacement Sensing Enabled by Metamaterial Probes for Remote Structural Health Monitoring
Sensors 2014, 14(1), 1691-1704; https://doi.org/10.3390/s140101691 - 17 Jan 2014
Cited by 29 | Viewed by 3800
Abstract
We propose and demonstrate a wireless, passive, metamaterial-based sensor that allows for remotely monitoring submicron displacements over millimeter ranges. The sensor comprises a probe made of multiple nested split ring resonators (NSRRs) in a double-comb architecture coupled to an external antenna in its [...] Read more.
We propose and demonstrate a wireless, passive, metamaterial-based sensor that allows for remotely monitoring submicron displacements over millimeter ranges. The sensor comprises a probe made of multiple nested split ring resonators (NSRRs) in a double-comb architecture coupled to an external antenna in its near-field. In operation, the sensor detects displacement of a structure onto which the NSRR probe is attached by telemetrically tracking the shift in its local frequency peaks. Owing to the NSRR’s near-field excitation response, which is highly sensitive to the displaced comb-teeth over a wide separation, the wireless sensing system exhibits a relatively high resolution (<1 µm) and a large dynamic range (over 7 mm), along with high levels of linearity (R2 > 0.99 over 5 mm) and sensitivity (>12.7 MHz/mm in the 1–3 mm range). The sensor is also shown to be working in the linear region in a scenario where it is attached to a standard structural reinforcing bar. Because of its wireless and passive nature, together with its low cost, the proposed system enabled by the metamaterial probes holds a great promise for applications in remote structural health monitoring. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Physical Sensors)
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Open AccessArticle
Manufacture of Radio Frequency Micromachined Switches with Annealing
Sensors 2014, 14(1), 1680-1690; https://doi.org/10.3390/s140101680 - 17 Jan 2014
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2708
Abstract
The fabrication and characterization of a radio frequency (RF) micromachined switch with annealing were presented. The structure of the RF switch consists of a membrane, coplanar waveguide (CPW) lines, and eight springs. The RF switch is manufactured using the complementary metal oxide semiconductor [...] Read more.
The fabrication and characterization of a radio frequency (RF) micromachined switch with annealing were presented. The structure of the RF switch consists of a membrane, coplanar waveguide (CPW) lines, and eight springs. The RF switch is manufactured using the complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) process. The switch requires a post-process to release the membrane and springs. The post-process uses a wet etching to remove the sacrificial silicon dioxide layer, and to obtain the suspended structures of the switch. In order to improve the residual stress of the switch, an annealing process is applied to the switch, and the membrane obtains an excellent flatness. The finite element method (FEM) software CoventorWare is utilized to simulate the stress and displacement of the RF switch. Experimental results show that the RF switch has an insertion loss of 0.9 dB at 35 GHz and an isolation of 21 dB at 39 GHz. The actuation voltage of the switch is 14 V. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Modeling, Testing and Reliability Issues in MEMS Engineering 2013)
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Open AccessArticle
Statistical Tools Applied in the Characterisation and Evaluation of a Thermo-Hygrometric Corrective Action Carried out at the Noheda Archaeological Site (Noheda, Spain)
Sensors 2014, 14(1), 1665-1679; https://doi.org/10.3390/s140101665 - 17 Jan 2014
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 3243
Abstract
The Noheda archaeological site is unique and exceptional for its size, and the quality and conservation condition of the Roman mosaic pavement covering its urban pars. In 2008 a tent was installed as protection from rain and sun. Being of interest to [...] Read more.
The Noheda archaeological site is unique and exceptional for its size, and the quality and conservation condition of the Roman mosaic pavement covering its urban pars. In 2008 a tent was installed as protection from rain and sun. Being of interest to characterise the microclimate of the remains, six probes with relative humidity and temperature sensors were installed in 2013 for this purpose. Microclimate monitoring allowed us to check relative humidity differences resulting from the groundwater level, as well as inner sensors reaching maximum temperatures higher than the outdoors ones as a consequence of the non-ventilated tent covering the archaeological site. Microclimatic conditions in the archaeological site were deemed detrimental for the conservation of the mosaics. Thus, in summer 2013, expanded clay and geotextile were installed over the mosaics as a corrective action. The outcomes of this study have proven the effectiveness of this solution to control temperature and relative humidity, helping to configure a more stable microclimate suitable for preservation of the mosaic. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensors for Cultural Heritage Diagnostics)
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Open AccessArticle
Incorporating β-Cyclodextrin with ZnO Nanorods: A Potentiometric Strategy for Selectivity and Detection of Dopamine
Sensors 2014, 14(1), 1654-1664; https://doi.org/10.3390/s140101654 - 17 Jan 2014
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 3433
Abstract
We describe a chemical sensor based on a simple synthesis of zinc oxide nanorods (ZNRs) for the detection of dopamine molecules by a potentiometric approach. The polar nature of dopamine leads to a change of surface charges on the ZNR surface via metal [...] Read more.
We describe a chemical sensor based on a simple synthesis of zinc oxide nanorods (ZNRs) for the detection of dopamine molecules by a potentiometric approach. The polar nature of dopamine leads to a change of surface charges on the ZNR surface via metal ligand bond formation which results in a measurable electrical signal. ZNRs were grown on a gold-coated glass substrate by a low temperature aqueous chemical growth (ACG) method. Polymeric membranes incorporating β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) and potassium tetrakis (4-chlorophenyl) borate was immobilized on the ZNR surface. The fabricated electrodes were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) techniques. The grown ZNRs were well aligned and exhibited good crystal quality. The present sensor system displays a stable potential response for the detection of dopamine in 10−2 mol·L−1 acetic acid/sodium acetate buffer solution at pH 5.45 within a wide concentration range of 1 × 10−6 M–1 × 10−1 M, with sensitivity of 49 mV/decade. The electrode shows a good response time (less than 10 s) and excellent repeatability. This finding can contribute to routine analysis in laboratories studying the neuropharmacology of catecholamines. Moreover, the metal-ligand bonds can be further exploited to detect DA receptors, and for bio-imaging applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Chemical Sensors)
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Open AccessArticle
A Smart Kitchen for Ambient Assisted Living
Sensors 2014, 14(1), 1629-1653; https://doi.org/10.3390/s140101629 - 17 Jan 2014
Cited by 70 | Viewed by 8437
Abstract
The kitchen environment is one of the scenarios in the home where users can benefit from Ambient Assisted Living (AAL) applications. Moreover, it is the place where old people suffer from most domestic injuries. This paper presents a novel design, implementation and assessment [...] Read more.
The kitchen environment is one of the scenarios in the home where users can benefit from Ambient Assisted Living (AAL) applications. Moreover, it is the place where old people suffer from most domestic injuries. This paper presents a novel design, implementation and assessment of a Smart Kitchen which provides Ambient Assisted Living services; a smart environment that increases elderly and disabled people’s autonomy in their kitchen-related activities through context and user awareness, appropriate user interaction and artificial intelligence. It is based on a modular architecture which integrates a wide variety of home technology (household appliances, sensors, user interfaces, etc.) and associated communication standards and media (power line, radio frequency, infrared and cabled). Its software architecture is based on the Open Services Gateway initiative (OSGi), which allows building a complex system composed of small modules, each one providing the specific functionalities required, and can be easily scaled to meet our needs. The system has been evaluated by a large number of real users (63) and carers (31) in two living labs in Spain and UK. Results show a large potential of system functionalities combined with good usability and physical, sensory and cognitive accessibility. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Ontology-Driven Monitoring of Patient’s Vital Signs Enabling Personalized Medical Detection and Alert
Sensors 2014, 14(1), 1598-1628; https://doi.org/10.3390/s140101598 - 17 Jan 2014
Cited by 48 | Viewed by 4422
Abstract
A major challenge related to caring for patients with chronic conditions is the early detection of exacerbations of the disease. Medical personnel should be contacted immediately in order to intervene in time before an acute state is reached, ensuring patient safety. This paper [...] Read more.
A major challenge related to caring for patients with chronic conditions is the early detection of exacerbations of the disease. Medical personnel should be contacted immediately in order to intervene in time before an acute state is reached, ensuring patient safety. This paper proposes an approach to an ambient intelligence (AmI) framework supporting real-time remote monitoring of patients diagnosed with congestive heart failure (CHF). Its novelty is the integration of: (i) personalized monitoring of the patients health status and risk stage; (ii) intelligent alerting of the dedicated physician through the construction of medical workflows on-the-fly; and (iii) dynamic adaptation of the vital signs’ monitoring environment on any available device or smart phone located in close proximity to the physician depending on new medical measurements, additional disease specifications or the failure of the infrastructure. The intelligence lies in the adoption of semantics providing for a personalized and automated emergency alerting that smoothly interacts with the physician, regardless of his location, ensuring timely intervention during an emergency. It is evaluated on a medical emergency scenario, where in the case of exceeded patient thresholds, medical personnel are localized and contacted, presenting ad hoc information on the patient’s condition on the most suited device within the physician’s reach. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Hyperpolarized NMR Probes for Biological Assays
Sensors 2014, 14(1), 1576-1597; https://doi.org/10.3390/s140101576 - 16 Jan 2014
Cited by 32 | Viewed by 4523
Abstract
During the last decade, the development of nuclear spin polarization enhanced (hyperpolarized) molecular probes has opened up new opportunities for studying the inner workings of living cells in real time. The hyperpolarized probes are produced ex situ, introduced into biological systems and [...] Read more.
During the last decade, the development of nuclear spin polarization enhanced (hyperpolarized) molecular probes has opened up new opportunities for studying the inner workings of living cells in real time. The hyperpolarized probes are produced ex situ, introduced into biological systems and detected with high sensitivity and contrast against background signals using high resolution NMR spectroscopy. A variety of natural, derivatized and designed hyperpolarized probes has emerged for diverse biological studies including assays of intracellular reaction progression, pathway kinetics, probe uptake and export, pH, redox state, reactive oxygen species, ion concentrations, drug efficacy or oncogenic signaling. These probes are readily used directly under natural conditions in biofluids and are often directly developed and optimized for cellular assays, thus leaving little doubt about their specificity and utility under biologically relevant conditions. Hyperpolarized molecular probes for biological NMR spectroscopy enable the unbiased detection of complex processes by virtue of the high spectral resolution, structural specificity and quantifiability of NMR signals. Here, we provide a survey of strategies used for the selection, design and use of hyperpolarized NMR probes in biological assays, and describe current limitations and developments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Magnetic Resonance Sensors)
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Open AccessArticle
In-Line Measurement of Water Content in Ethanol Using a PVA-Coated Quartz Crystal Microbalance
Sensors 2014, 14(1), 1564-1575; https://doi.org/10.3390/s140101564 - 16 Jan 2014
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 3003
Abstract
An in-line device for measuring the water content in ethanol was developed using a polyvinyl alcohol (PVA)-coated quartz crystal microbalance. Bio-ethanol is widely used as the replacement of gasoline, and its water content is a key component of its specifications. When the PVA-coated [...] Read more.
An in-line device for measuring the water content in ethanol was developed using a polyvinyl alcohol (PVA)-coated quartz crystal microbalance. Bio-ethanol is widely used as the replacement of gasoline, and its water content is a key component of its specifications. When the PVA-coated quartz crystal microbalance is contacted with ethanol containing a small amount of water, the water is absorbed into the PVA increasing the load on the microbalance surface to cause a frequency drop. The determination performance of the PVA-coated microbalance is examined by measuring the frequency decreases in ethanol containing 2% to 10% water while the ethanol flows through the measurement device. The measurements indicates that the higher water content is the more the frequency reduction is, though some deviation in the measurements is observed. This indicates that the frequency measurement of an unknown concentration of water in ethanol can be used to determine the water content in ethanol. The PVA coating is examined by microscopy and FTIR (Fourier transform infrared) spectroscopy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Chemical Sensors)
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Open AccessArticle
Enhancement of the Excitation Efficiency of the Non-Contact Magnetostrictive Sensor for Pipe Inspection by Adjusting the Alternating Magnetic Field Axial Length
Sensors 2014, 14(1), 1544-1563; https://doi.org/10.3390/s140101544 - 16 Jan 2014
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 3128
Abstract
The non-contact magnetostrictive sensor (MsS) has been widely used in the guided wave testing of pipes, cables, and so on. However, it has a disadvantage of low excitation efficiency. A new method for enhancing the excitation efficiency of the non-contact MsS for pipe [...] Read more.
The non-contact magnetostrictive sensor (MsS) has been widely used in the guided wave testing of pipes, cables, and so on. However, it has a disadvantage of low excitation efficiency. A new method for enhancing the excitation efficiency of the non-contact MsS for pipe inspection using guided waves, by adjusting the axial length of the excitation magnetic field, is proposed. A special transmitter structure, in which two copper rings are added beside the transmitter coil, is used to adjust the axial length at the expense of weakening the excitation magnetic field. An equivalent vibration model is presented to analyze the influence of the axial length variation. The final result is investigated by experiments. Results show that the excitation efficiency of the non-contact MsS is enhanced in the whole inspection frequency range of the L(0,2) mode if the axial length is adjusted to a certain value. Moreover that certain axial length is the same for pipes of different sizes but made of the same material. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Physical Sensors)
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Open AccessArticle
RTS Noise and Dark Current White Defects Reduction Using Selective Averaging Based on a Multi-Aperture System
Sensors 2014, 14(1), 1528-1543; https://doi.org/10.3390/s140101528 - 16 Jan 2014
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 3918
Abstract
In extremely low-light conditions, random telegraph signal (RTS) noise and dark current white defects become visible. In this paper, a multi-aperture imaging system and selective averaging method which removes the RTS noise and the dark current white defects by minimizing the synthetic sensor [...] Read more.
In extremely low-light conditions, random telegraph signal (RTS) noise and dark current white defects become visible. In this paper, a multi-aperture imaging system and selective averaging method which removes the RTS noise and the dark current white defects by minimizing the synthetic sensor noise at every pixel is proposed. In the multi-aperture imaging system, a very small synthetic F-number which is much smaller than 1.0 is achieved by increasing optical gain with multiple lenses. It is verified by simulation that the effective noise normalized by optical gain in the peak of noise histogram is reduced from 1.38e⁻ to 0.48 e⁻ in a 3 × 3-aperture system using low-noise CMOS image sensors based on folding-integration and cyclic column ADCs. In the experiment, a prototype 3 × 3-aperture camera, where each aperture has 200 × 200 pixels and an imaging lens with a focal length of 3.0 mm and F-number of 3.0, is developed. Under a low-light condition, in which the maximum average signal is 11e⁻ per aperture, the RTS and dark current white defects are removed and the peak signal-to-noise ratio (PSNR) of the image is increased by 6.3 dB. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Photonic Sensors for Industrial, Environmental and Health Monitoring)
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Open AccessArticle
A Strapdown Interial Navigation System/Beidou/Doppler Velocity Log Integrated Navigation Algorithm Based on a Cubature Kalman Filter
Sensors 2014, 14(1), 1511-1527; https://doi.org/10.3390/s140101511 - 15 Jan 2014
Cited by 56 | Viewed by 4080
Abstract
The integrated navigation system with strapdown inertial navigation system (SINS), Beidou (BD) receiver and Doppler velocity log (DVL) can be used in marine applications owing to the fact that the redundant and complementary information from different sensors can markedly improve the system accuracy. [...] Read more.
The integrated navigation system with strapdown inertial navigation system (SINS), Beidou (BD) receiver and Doppler velocity log (DVL) can be used in marine applications owing to the fact that the redundant and complementary information from different sensors can markedly improve the system accuracy. However, the existence of multisensor asynchrony will introduce errors into the system. In order to deal with the problem, conventionally the sampling interval is subdivided, which increases the computational complexity. In this paper, an innovative integrated navigation algorithm based on a Cubature Kalman filter (CKF) is proposed correspondingly. A nonlinear system model and observation model for the SINS/BD/DVL integrated system are established to more accurately describe the system. By taking multi-sensor asynchronization into account, a new sampling principle is proposed to make the best use of each sensor’s information. Further, CKF is introduced in this new algorithm to enable the improvement of the filtering accuracy. The performance of this new algorithm has been examined through numerical simulations. The results have shown that the positional error can be effectively reduced with the new integrated navigation algorithm. Compared with the traditional algorithm based on EKF, the accuracy of the SINS/BD/DVL integrated navigation system is improved, making the proposed nonlinear integrated navigation algorithm feasible and efficient. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Remote Sensors)
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Open AccessArticle
Autonomous Oscillation of Polymer Chains Induced by the Belousov–Zhabotinsky Reaction
Sensors 2014, 14(1), 1497-1510; https://doi.org/10.3390/s140101497 - 15 Jan 2014
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 3218
Abstract
We investigated the self-oscillating behaviors of two types of polymer chains induced by the Belousov–Zhabotinsky (BZ) reaction. One consisted of N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPAAm) and the Ru catalyst of the BZ reaction, and the other consisted of NIPAAm, the Ru catalyst, and acrylamide-2-methylpropanesulfonic acid [...] Read more.
We investigated the self-oscillating behaviors of two types of polymer chains induced by the Belousov–Zhabotinsky (BZ) reaction. One consisted of N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPAAm) and the Ru catalyst of the BZ reaction, and the other consisted of NIPAAm, the Ru catalyst, and acrylamide-2-methylpropanesulfonic acid (AMPS) with a negatively charged domain as a solubility control site. A comparison of the two types of self-oscillation systems showed that the anionic AMPS portion of the polymer chain significantly affected the self-oscillating behavior under strongly acidic condition. The periods of self-oscillation for the two types of self-oscillating polymer chains were investigated by changing the initial concentrations of the three BZ substrates and the temperature. As a result, it was demonstrated that the period of self-oscillation could be controlled by the concentration of the BZ substrates and the temperature. Furthermore, the activation energies of the two types of the self-oscillating polymer chains gave similar values as normal BZ reactions, i.e., not including the self-oscillating polymer system with a Ru moiety. In addition, it was clarified the activation energy was hardly affected by the initial concentration of the three BZ substrates. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polymeric Micro Sensors and Actuators)
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Open AccessArticle
An Energy Efficient Compressed Sensing Framework for the Compression of Electroencephalogram Signals
Sensors 2014, 14(1), 1474-1496; https://doi.org/10.3390/s140101474 - 15 Jan 2014
Cited by 35 | Viewed by 4175
Abstract
The use of wireless body sensor networks is gaining popularity in monitoring and communicating information about a person’s health. In such applications, the amount of data transmitted by the sensor node should be minimized. This is because the energy available in these battery [...] Read more.
The use of wireless body sensor networks is gaining popularity in monitoring and communicating information about a person’s health. In such applications, the amount of data transmitted by the sensor node should be minimized. This is because the energy available in these battery powered sensors is limited. In this paper, we study the wireless transmission of electroencephalogram (EEG) signals. We propose the use of a compressed sensing (CS) framework to efficiently compress these signals at the sensor node. Our framework exploits both the temporal correlation within EEG signals and the spatial correlations amongst the EEG channels. We show that our framework is up to eight times more energy efficient than the typical wavelet compression method in terms of compression and encoding computations and wireless transmission. We also show that for a fixed compression ratio, our method achieves a better reconstruction quality than the CS-based state-of-the art method. We finally demonstrate that our method is robust to measurement noise and to packet loss and that it is applicable to a wide range of EEG signal types. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Sensors for Globalized Healthy Living and Wellbeing)
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Open AccessReview
The Development of Micromachined Gyroscope Structure and Circuitry Technology
Sensors 2014, 14(1), 1394-1473; https://doi.org/10.3390/s140101394 - 14 Jan 2014
Cited by 137 | Viewed by 7214
Abstract
This review surveys micromachined gyroscope structure and circuitry technology. The principle of micromachined gyroscopes is first introduced. Then, different kinds of MEMS gyroscope structures, materials and fabrication technologies are illustrated. Micromachined gyroscopes are mainly categorized into micromachined vibrating gyroscopes (MVGs), piezoelectric vibrating gyroscopes [...] Read more.
This review surveys micromachined gyroscope structure and circuitry technology. The principle of micromachined gyroscopes is first introduced. Then, different kinds of MEMS gyroscope structures, materials and fabrication technologies are illustrated. Micromachined gyroscopes are mainly categorized into micromachined vibrating gyroscopes (MVGs), piezoelectric vibrating gyroscopes (PVGs), surface acoustic wave (SAW) gyroscopes, bulk acoustic wave (BAW) gyroscopes, micromachined electrostatically suspended gyroscopes (MESGs), magnetically suspended gyroscopes (MSGs), micro fiber optic gyroscopes (MFOGs), micro fluid gyroscopes (MFGs), micro atom gyroscopes (MAGs), and special micromachined gyroscopes. Next, the control electronics of micromachined gyroscopes are analyzed. The control circuits are categorized into typical circuitry and special circuitry technologies. The typical circuitry technologies include typical analog circuitry and digital circuitry, while the special circuitry consists of sigma delta, mode matching, temperature/quadrature compensation and novel special technologies. Finally, the characteristics of various typical gyroscopes and their development tendency are discussed and investigated in detail. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Physical Sensors)
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Open AccessArticle
Gearbox Tooth Cut Fault Diagnostics Using Acoustic Emission and Vibration Sensors — A Comparative Study
Sensors 2014, 14(1), 1372-1393; https://doi.org/10.3390/s140101372 - 14 Jan 2014
Cited by 71 | Viewed by 5109
Abstract
In recent years, acoustic emission (AE) sensors and AE-based techniques have been developed and tested for gearbox fault diagnosis. In general, AE-based techniques require much higher sampling rates than vibration analysis-based techniques for gearbox fault diagnosis. Therefore, it is questionable whether an AE-based [...] Read more.
In recent years, acoustic emission (AE) sensors and AE-based techniques have been developed and tested for gearbox fault diagnosis. In general, AE-based techniques require much higher sampling rates than vibration analysis-based techniques for gearbox fault diagnosis. Therefore, it is questionable whether an AE-based technique would give a better or at least the same performance as the vibration analysis-based techniques using the same sampling rate. To answer the question, this paper presents a comparative study for gearbox tooth damage level diagnostics using AE and vibration measurements, the first known attempt to compare the gearbox fault diagnostic performance of AE- and vibration analysis-based approaches using the same sampling rate. Partial tooth cut faults are seeded in a gearbox test rig and experimentally tested in a laboratory. Results have shown that the AE-based approach has the potential to differentiate gear tooth damage levels in comparison with the vibration-based approach. While vibration signals are easily affected by mechanical resonance, the AE signals show more stable performance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Physical Sensors)
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Open AccessArticle
Coumarin-Based Fluorescent Probes for Dual Recognition of Copper(II) and Iron(III) Ions and Their Application in Bio-Imaging
Sensors 2014, 14(1), 1358-1371; https://doi.org/10.3390/s140101358 - 13 Jan 2014
Cited by 66 | Viewed by 5359
Abstract
Two new coumarin-based “turn-off” fluorescent probes, (E)-3-((3,4-dihydroxybenzylidene)amino)-7-hydroxy-2H-chromen-2-one (BS1) and (E)-3-((2,4-dihydroxybenzylidene)amino)-7-hydroxy-2H-chromen-2-one (BS2), were synthesized and their detection of copper(II) and iron(III) ions was studied. Results show that both compounds are highly selective [...] Read more.
Two new coumarin-based “turn-off” fluorescent probes, (E)-3-((3,4-dihydroxybenzylidene)amino)-7-hydroxy-2H-chromen-2-one (BS1) and (E)-3-((2,4-dihydroxybenzylidene)amino)-7-hydroxy-2H-chromen-2-one (BS2), were synthesized and their detection of copper(II) and iron(III) ions was studied. Results show that both compounds are highly selective for Cu2+ and Fe3+ ions over other metal ions. However, BS2 is detected directly, while detection of BS1 involves a hydrolysis reaction to regenerate 3-amino-7-hydroxycoumarin (3) and 3,4-dihydroxybenzaldehyde, of which 3 is able to react with copper(II) or iron(III) ions. The interaction between the tested compounds and copper or iron ions is associated with a large fluorescence decrease, showing detection limits of ca. 10−5 M. Preliminary studies employing epifluorescence microscopy demonstrate that Cu2+ and Fe3+ ions can be imaged in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells treated with the tested probes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fluorescent Biosensors)
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Open AccessReview
A Survey of Routing Protocols in Wireless Body Sensor Networks
Sensors 2014, 14(1), 1322-1357; https://doi.org/10.3390/s140101322 - 13 Jan 2014
Cited by 103 | Viewed by 7140
Abstract
Wireless Body Sensor Networks (WBSNs) constitute a subset of Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) responsible for monitoring vital sign-related data of patients and accordingly route this data towards a sink. In routing sensed data towards sinks, WBSNs face some of the same routing challenges [...] Read more.
Wireless Body Sensor Networks (WBSNs) constitute a subset of Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) responsible for monitoring vital sign-related data of patients and accordingly route this data towards a sink. In routing sensed data towards sinks, WBSNs face some of the same routing challenges as general WSNs, but the unique requirements of WBSNs impose some more constraints that need to be addressed by the routing mechanisms. This paper identifies various issues and challenges in pursuit of effective routing in WBSNs. Furthermore, it provides a detailed literature review of the various existing routing protocols used in the WBSN domain by discussing their strengths and weaknesses. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensors Data Fusion for Healthcare)
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Open AccessArticle
A One-Versus-All Class Binarization Strategy for Bearing Diagnostics of Concurrent Defects
Sensors 2014, 14(1), 1295-1321; https://doi.org/10.3390/s140101295 - 13 Jan 2014
Cited by 22 | Viewed by 3407
Abstract
In bearing diagnostics using a data-driven modeling approach, a concern is the need for data from all possible scenarios to build a practical model for all operating conditions. This paper is a study on bearing diagnostics with the concurrent occurrence of multiple defect [...] Read more.
In bearing diagnostics using a data-driven modeling approach, a concern is the need for data from all possible scenarios to build a practical model for all operating conditions. This paper is a study on bearing diagnostics with the concurrent occurrence of multiple defect types. The authors are not aware of any work in the literature that studies this practical problem. A strategy based on one-versus-all (OVA) class binarization is proposed to improve fault diagnostics accuracy while reducing the number of scenarios for data collection, by predicting concurrent defects from training data of normal and single defects. The proposed OVA diagnostic approach is evaluated with empirical analysis using support vector machine (SVM) and C4.5 decision tree, two popular classification algorithms frequently applied to system health diagnostics and prognostics. Statistical features are extracted from the time domain and the frequency domain. Prediction performance of the proposed strategy is compared with that of a simple multi-class classification, as well as that of random guess and worst-case classification. We have verified the potential of the proposed OVA diagnostic strategy in performance improvements for single-defect diagnosis and predictions of BPFO plus BPFI concurrent defects using two laboratory-collected vibration data sets. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Physical Sensors)
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