Next Issue
Previous Issue

E-Mail Alert

Add your e-mail address to receive forthcoming issues of this journal:

Journal Browser

Journal Browser

Table of Contents

Sensors, Volume 13, Issue 6 (June 2013), Pages 6882-8059

  • Issues are regarded as officially published after their release is announced to the table of contents alert mailing list.
  • You may sign up for e-mail alerts to receive table of contents of newly released issues.
  • PDF is the official format for papers published in both, html and pdf forms. To view the papers in pdf format, click on the "PDF Full-text" link, and use the free Adobe Readerexternal link to open them.
View options order results:
result details:
Displaying articles 1-64
Export citation of selected articles as:
Open AccessArticle Extending the GMR Current Measurement Range with a Counteracting Magnetic Field
Sensors 2013, 13(6), 8042-8059; https://doi.org/10.3390/s130608042
Received: 12 April 2013 / Revised: 6 June 2013 / Accepted: 14 June 2013 / Published: 21 June 2013
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 3114 | PDF Full-text (603 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Traditionally, current transformers are often used for current measurement in low voltage (LV) electrical networks. They have a large physical size and are not designed for use with power electronic circuits. Semiconductor-based current sensing devices such as the Hall sensor and Giant Magnetoresistive
[...] Read more.
Traditionally, current transformers are often used for current measurement in low voltage (LV) electrical networks. They have a large physical size and are not designed for use with power electronic circuits. Semiconductor-based current sensing devices such as the Hall sensor and Giant Magnetoresistive (GMR) sensor are advantageous in terms of small size, high sensitivity, wide frequency range, low power consumption, and relatively low cost. Nevertheless, the operational characteristics of these devices limit their current measurement range. In this paper, a design based on using counteracting magnetic field is introduced for extending the GMR current measurement range from 9 A (unipolar) to ±45 A. A prototype has been implemented to verify the design and the linear operation of the circuit is demonstrated by experimental results. A microcontroller unit (MCU) is used to provide an automatic scaling function to optimize the performance of the proposed current sensor. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Physical Sensors)
Open AccessArticle Sequential Fuzzy Diagnosis Method for Motor Roller Bearing in Variable Operating Conditions Based on Vibration Analysis
Sensors 2013, 13(6), 8013-8041; https://doi.org/10.3390/s130608013
Received: 8 April 2013 / Revised: 27 May 2013 / Accepted: 10 June 2013 / Published: 21 June 2013
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2984 | PDF Full-text (972 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A novel intelligent fault diagnosis method for motor roller bearings which operate under unsteady rotating speed and load is proposed in this paper. The pseudo Wigner-Ville distribution (PWVD) and the relative crossing information (RCI) methods are used for extracting the feature spectra from
[...] Read more.
A novel intelligent fault diagnosis method for motor roller bearings which operate under unsteady rotating speed and load is proposed in this paper. The pseudo Wigner-Ville distribution (PWVD) and the relative crossing information (RCI) methods are used for extracting the feature spectra from the non-stationary vibration signal measured for condition diagnosis. The RCI is used to automatically extract the feature spectrum from the time-frequency distribution of the vibration signal. The extracted feature spectrum is instantaneous, and not correlated with the rotation speed and load. By using the ant colony optimization (ACO) clustering algorithm, the synthesizing symptom parameters (SSP) for condition diagnosis are obtained. The experimental results shows that the diagnostic sensitivity of the SSP is higher than original symptom parameter (SP), and the SSP can sensitively reflect the characteristics of the feature spectrum for precise condition diagnosis. Finally, a fuzzy diagnosis method based on sequential inference and possibility theory is also proposed, by which the conditions of the machine can be identified sequentially as well. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Physical Sensors)
Open AccessArticle Array of Hall Effect Sensors for Linear Positioning of a Magnet Independently of Its Strength Variation. A Case Study: Monitoring Milk Yield during Milking in Goats
Sensors 2013, 13(6), 8000-8012; https://doi.org/10.3390/s130608000
Received: 26 April 2013 / Revised: 10 June 2013 / Accepted: 11 June 2013 / Published: 21 June 2013
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 3088 | PDF Full-text (558 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this study we propose an electronic system for linear positioning of a magnet independent of its modulus, which could vary because of aging, different fabrication process, etc. The system comprises a linear array of 24 Hall Effect sensors of proportional response. The
[...] Read more.
In this study we propose an electronic system for linear positioning of a magnet independent of its modulus, which could vary because of aging, different fabrication process, etc. The system comprises a linear array of 24 Hall Effect sensors of proportional response. The data from all sensors are subject to a pretreatment (normalization) by row (position) making them independent on the temporary variation of its magnetic field strength. We analyze the particular case of the individual flow in milking of goats. The multiple regression analysis allowed us to calibrate the electronic system with a percentage of explanation R2 = 99.96%. In our case, the uncertainty in the linear position of the magnet is 0.51 mm that represents 0.019 L of goat milk. The test in farm compared the results obtained by direct reading of the volume with those obtained by the proposed electronic calibrated system, achieving a percentage of explanation of 99.05%. Full article
Open AccessArticle Rate-Gyro-Integral Constraint for Ambiguity Resolution in GNSS Attitude Determination Applications
Sensors 2013, 13(6), 7979-7999; https://doi.org/10.3390/s130607979
Received: 3 May 2013 / Revised: 31 May 2013 / Accepted: 12 June 2013 / Published: 21 June 2013
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 2863 | PDF Full-text (1606 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In the field of Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) attitude determination, the constraints usually play a critical role in resolving the unknown ambiguities quickly and correctly. Many constraints such as the baseline length, the geometry of multi-baselines and the horizontal attitude angles have
[...] Read more.
In the field of Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) attitude determination, the constraints usually play a critical role in resolving the unknown ambiguities quickly and correctly. Many constraints such as the baseline length, the geometry of multi-baselines and the horizontal attitude angles have been used extensively to improve the performance of ambiguity resolution. In the GNSS/Inertial Navigation System (INS) integrated attitude determination systems using low grade Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU), the initial heading parameters of the vehicle are usually worked out by the GNSS subsystem instead of by the IMU sensors independently. However, when a rotation occurs, the angle at which vehicle has turned within a short time span can be measured accurately by the IMU. This measurement will be treated as a constraint, namely the rate-gyro-integral constraint, which can aid the GNSS ambiguity resolution. We will use this constraint to filter the candidates in the ambiguity search stage. The ambiguity search space shrinks significantly with this constraint imposed during the rotation, thus it is helpful to speeding up the initialization of attitude parameters under dynamic circumstances. This paper will only study the applications of this new constraint to land vehicles. The impacts of measurement errors on the effect of this new constraint will be assessed for different grades of IMU and current average precision level of GNSS receivers. Simulations and experiments in urban areas have demonstrated the validity and efficacy of the new constraint in aiding GNSS attitude determinations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Physical Sensors)
Open AccessArticle Quantitative Analysis of Fragrance and Odorants Released from Fresh and Decaying Strawberries
Sensors 2013, 13(6), 7939-7978; https://doi.org/10.3390/s130607939
Received: 18 April 2013 / Revised: 7 June 2013 / Accepted: 13 June 2013 / Published: 20 June 2013
Cited by 19 | Viewed by 2793 | PDF Full-text (1483 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The classes and concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOC) released from fresh and decaying strawberries were investigated and compared. In this study, a total of 147 strawberry volatiles were quantified before and after nine days of storage to explore differences in the aroma
[...] Read more.
The classes and concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOC) released from fresh and decaying strawberries were investigated and compared. In this study, a total of 147 strawberry volatiles were quantified before and after nine days of storage to explore differences in the aroma profile between fresh strawberries (storage days (SRD) of 0, 1, and 3) and those that had started to decay (SRD = 6 and 9). In terms of concentration, seven compounds dominated the aroma profile of fresh strawberries (relative composition (RC) up to 97.4% by mass, sum concentration): (1) ethyl acetate = 518 mg∙m−3, (2) methyl acetate = 239 mg∙m−3, (3) ethyl butyrate = 13.5 mg∙m−3, (4) methyl butyrate = 11.1 mg∙m−3, (5) acetaldehyde = 24.9 mg∙m−3, (6) acetic acid = 15.2 mg∙m−3, and (7) acetone = 13.9 mg∙m−3. In contrast, two alcohols dominated the aroma profile of decayed samples (RC up to 98.6%): (1) ethyl alcohol = 94.2 mg∙m−3 and (2) isobutyl alcohol = 289 mg∙m−3. Alternatively; if the aroma profiles are re-evaluated by summing odor activity values (ΣOAV); four ester compounds ((1) ethyl butyrate (6,160); (2) ethyl hexanoate (3,608); (3) ethyl isovalerate (1,592); and (4) ethyl 2-methylbutyrate (942)) were identified as the key constituents of fresh strawberry aroma (SRD-0). As the strawberries began to decay; isobutyl alcohol recorded the maximum OAV of 114 (relative proportion (RP) (SRD = 6) = 58.3%). However, as the decay process continued, the total OAV dropped further by 3 to 4 orders of magnitude—decreasing to 196 on SRD = 6 to 7.37 on SRD = 9. The overall results of this study confirm dramatic changes in the aroma profile of strawberries over time, especially with the onset of decay. Full article
Open AccessArticle Synthesis of Novel CuO Nanosheets and Their Non-Enzymatic Glucose Sensing Applications
Sensors 2013, 13(6), 7926-7938; https://doi.org/10.3390/s130607926
Received: 6 May 2013 / Revised: 7 June 2013 / Accepted: 14 June 2013 / Published: 20 June 2013
Cited by 44 | Viewed by 4149 | PDF Full-text (924 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this study, we have developed a sensitive and selective glucose sensor using novel CuO nanosheets which were grown on a gold coated glass substrate by a low temperature growth method. X-ray differaction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) techniques were used for
[...] Read more.
In this study, we have developed a sensitive and selective glucose sensor using novel CuO nanosheets which were grown on a gold coated glass substrate by a low temperature growth method. X-ray differaction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) techniques were used for the structural characterization of CuO nanostructures. CuO nanosheets are highly dense, uniform, and exhibited good crystalline array structure. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) technique was applied for the study of chemical composition of CuO nanosheets and the obtained information demonstrated pure phase CuO nanosheets. The novel CuO nanosheets were employed for the development of a sensitive and selective non-enzymatic glucose sensor. The measured sensitivity and a correlation coefficient are in order 5.20 × 102 µA/mMcm2 and 0.998, respectively. The proposed sensor is associated with several advantages such as low cost, simplicity, high stability, reproducibility and selectivity for the quick detection of glucose. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Chemical Sensors)
Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle A Reflective Photonic Crystal Fiber Temperature Sensor Probe Based on Infiltration with Liquid Mixtures
Sensors 2013, 13(6), 7916-7925; https://doi.org/10.3390/s130607916
Received: 19 April 2013 / Revised: 15 May 2013 / Accepted: 7 June 2013 / Published: 20 June 2013
Cited by 20 | Viewed by 3396 | PDF Full-text (276 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this paper, a reflective photonic crystal fiber (PCF) sensor probe for temperature measurement has been demonstrated both theoretically and experimentally. The performance of the device depends on the intensity modulation of the optical signal by liquid mixtures infiltrated into the air holes
[...] Read more.
In this paper, a reflective photonic crystal fiber (PCF) sensor probe for temperature measurement has been demonstrated both theoretically and experimentally. The performance of the device depends on the intensity modulation of the optical signal by liquid mixtures infiltrated into the air holes of commercial LMA-8 PCFs. The effective mode field area and the confinement loss of the probe are both proved highly temperature-dependent based on the finite element method (FEM). The experimental results show that the reflected power exhibits a linear response with a temperature sensitivity of about 1 dB/°C. The sensor probe presents a tunable temperature sensitive range due to the concentration of the mixture components. Further research illustrates that with appropriate mixtures of liquids, the probe could be developed as a cryogenic temperature sensor. The temperature sensitivity is about 0.75 dB/°C. Such a configuration is promising for a portable, low-power and all-in-fiber device for temperature or refractive index monitoring in chemical or biosensing applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Physical Sensors)
Open AccessArticle Estimation of Melanin and Hemoglobin Using Spectral Reflectance Images Reconstructed from a Digital RGB Image by the Wiener Estimation Method
Sensors 2013, 13(6), 7902-7915; https://doi.org/10.3390/s130607902
Received: 30 April 2013 / Revised: 12 June 2013 / Accepted: 17 June 2013 / Published: 19 June 2013
Cited by 34 | Viewed by 4016 | PDF Full-text (668 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A multi-spectral diffuse reflectance imaging method based on a single snap shot of Red-Green-Blue images acquired with the exposure time of 65 ms (15 fps) was investigated for estimating melanin concentration, blood concentration, and oxygen saturation in human skin tissue. The technique utilizes
[...] Read more.
A multi-spectral diffuse reflectance imaging method based on a single snap shot of Red-Green-Blue images acquired with the exposure time of 65 ms (15 fps) was investigated for estimating melanin concentration, blood concentration, and oxygen saturation in human skin tissue. The technique utilizes the Wiener estimation method to deduce spectral reflectance images instantaneously from an RGB image. Using the resultant absorbance spectrum as a response variable and the extinction coefficients of melanin, oxygenated hemoglobin and deoxygenated hemoglobin as predictor variables, multiple regression analysis provides regression coefficients. Concentrations of melanin and total blood are then determined from the regression coefficients using conversion vectors that are numerically deduced in advance by the Monte Carlo simulations for light transport in skin. Oxygen saturation is obtained directly from the regression coefficients. Experiments with a tissue-like agar gel phantom validated the method. In vivo experiments on fingers during upper limb occlusion demonstrated the ability of the method to evaluate physiological reactions of human skin. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Spectral Imaging at the Microscale and Beyond)
Open AccessArticle Gait-Based Person Identification Robust to Changes in Appearance
Sensors 2013, 13(6), 7884-7901; https://doi.org/10.3390/s130607884
Received: 28 April 2013 / Revised: 10 June 2013 / Accepted: 14 June 2013 / Published: 19 June 2013
Cited by 27 | Viewed by 3035 | PDF Full-text (499 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The identification of a person from gait images is generally sensitive to appearance changes, such as variations of clothes and belongings. One possibility to deal with this problem is to collect possible subjects’ appearance changes in a database. However, it is almost impossible
[...] Read more.
The identification of a person from gait images is generally sensitive to appearance changes, such as variations of clothes and belongings. One possibility to deal with this problem is to collect possible subjects’ appearance changes in a database. However, it is almost impossible to predict all appearance changes in advance. In this paper, we propose a novel method, which allows robustly identifying people in spite of changes in appearance, without using a database of predicted appearance changes. In the proposed method, firstly, the human body image is divided into multiple areas, and features for each area are extracted. Next, a matching weight for each area is estimated based on the similarity between the extracted features and those in the database for standard clothes. Finally, the subject is identified by weighted integration of similarities in all areas. Experiments using the gait database CASIA show the best correct classification rate compared with conventional methods experiments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Physical Sensors)
Open AccessArticle In situ Measurements of Phytoplankton Fluorescence Using Low Cost Electronics
Sensors 2013, 13(6), 7872-7883; https://doi.org/10.3390/s130607872
Received: 2 May 2013 / Revised: 14 June 2013 / Accepted: 17 June 2013 / Published: 19 June 2013
Cited by 32 | Viewed by 4522 | PDF Full-text (642 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Chlorophyll a fluorometry has long been used as a method to study phytoplankton in the ocean. In situ fluorometry is used frequently in oceanography to provide depth-resolved estimates of phytoplankton biomass. However, the high price of commercially manufactured in situ fluorometers has made
[...] Read more.
Chlorophyll a fluorometry has long been used as a method to study phytoplankton in the ocean. In situ fluorometry is used frequently in oceanography to provide depth-resolved estimates of phytoplankton biomass. However, the high price of commercially manufactured in situ fluorometers has made them unavailable to some individuals and institutions. Presented here is an investigation into building an in situ fluorometer using low cost electronics. The goal was to construct an easily reproducible in situ fluorometer from simple and widely available electronic components. The simplicity and modest cost of the sensor makes it valuable to students and professionals alike. Open source sharing of architecture and software will allow students to reconstruct and customize the sensor on a small budget. Research applications that require numerous in situ fluorometers or expendable fluorometers can also benefit from this study. The sensor costs US$150.00 and can be constructed with little to no previous experience. The sensor uses a blue LED to excite chlorophyll a and measures fluorescence using a silicon photodiode. The sensor is controlled by an Arduino microcontroller that also serves as a data logger. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Chemical Sensors)
Open AccessArticle Recovery of Odorants from an Olfactometer Measured by Proton-Transfer-Reaction Mass Spectrometry
Sensors 2013, 13(6), 7860-7871; https://doi.org/10.3390/s130607860
Received: 11 April 2013 / Revised: 8 June 2013 / Accepted: 13 June 2013 / Published: 19 June 2013
Cited by 18 | Viewed by 2744 | PDF Full-text (598 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The aim of the present study was to examine the recovery of odorants during the dilution in an olfactometer designed according to the European standard for dynamic olfactometry. Nine odorants in the ppmv-range were examined including hydrogen sulfide, methanethiol, dimethyl sulfide,
[...] Read more.
The aim of the present study was to examine the recovery of odorants during the dilution in an olfactometer designed according to the European standard for dynamic olfactometry. Nine odorants in the ppmv-range were examined including hydrogen sulfide, methanethiol, dimethyl sulfide, acetic acid, propanoic acid, butanoic acid, trimethylamine, 3-methylphenol and n-butanol. Each odorant was diluted in six dilution steps in descending order from 4,096 to 128 times dilutions. The final recovery of dimethyl sulfide and n-butanol after a 60-second pulse was only slightly affected by the dilution, whereas the recoveries of the other odorants were significantly affected by the dilution. The final recoveries of carboxylic acids, trimethylamine and 3-methylphenol were affected by the pulse duration and the signals did not reach stable levels within the 60-second pulse, while sulfur compounds and n-butanol reach a stable signal within a few seconds. In conclusion, the dilution of odorants in an olfactometer has a high impact on the recovery of odorants and when olfactometry is used to estimate the odor concentration, the recoveries have to be taken into consideration for correct measurements. Full article
Open AccessArticle Combination of RGB and Multispectral Imagery for Discrimination of Cabernet Sauvignon Grapevine Elements
Sensors 2013, 13(6), 7838-7859; https://doi.org/10.3390/s130607838
Received: 6 May 2013 / Revised: 13 June 2013 / Accepted: 17 June 2013 / Published: 19 June 2013
Cited by 21 | Viewed by 3370 | PDF Full-text (2217 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper proposes a sequential masking algorithm based on the K-means method that combines RGB and multispectral imagery for discrimination of Cabernet Sauvignon grapevine elements in unstructured natural environments, without placing any screen behind the canopy and without any previous preparation of the
[...] Read more.
This paper proposes a sequential masking algorithm based on the K-means method that combines RGB and multispectral imagery for discrimination of Cabernet Sauvignon grapevine elements in unstructured natural environments, without placing any screen behind the canopy and without any previous preparation of the vineyard. In this way, image pixels are classified into five clusters corresponding to leaves, stems, branches, fruit and background. A custom-made sensory rig that integrates a CCD camera and a servo-controlled filter wheel has been specially designed and manufactured for the acquisition of images during the experimental stage. The proposed algorithm is extremely simple, efficient, and provides a satisfactory rate of classification success. All these features turn out the proposed algorithm into an appropriate candidate to be employed in numerous tasks of the precision viticulture, such as yield estimation, water and nutrients needs estimation, spraying and harvesting. Full article
Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle A Wireless Monitoring Sub-nA Resolution Test Platform for Nanostructure Sensors
Sensors 2013, 13(6), 7827-7837; https://doi.org/10.3390/s130607827
Received: 9 May 2013 / Revised: 9 June 2013 / Accepted: 13 June 2013 / Published: 19 June 2013
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2313 | PDF Full-text (645 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
We have constructed a wireless monitoring test platform with a sub-nA resolution signal amplification/processing circuit (SAPC) and a wireless communication network to test the real-time remote monitoring of the signals from carbon nanotube (CNT) sensors. The operation characteristics of the CNT sensors can
[...] Read more.
We have constructed a wireless monitoring test platform with a sub-nA resolution signal amplification/processing circuit (SAPC) and a wireless communication network to test the real-time remote monitoring of the signals from carbon nanotube (CNT) sensors. The operation characteristics of the CNT sensors can also be measured by the ISD-VSD curve with the SAPC. The SAPC signals are transmitted to a personal computer by Bluetooth communication and the signals from the computer are transmitted to smart phones by Wi-Fi communication, in such a way that the signals from the sensors can be remotely monitored through a web browser. Successful remote monitoring of signals from a CNT sensor was achieved with the wireless monitoring test platform for detection of 0.15% methanol vapor with 0.5 nA resolution and 7 Hz sampling rate. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanotube and Nanowire Sensors)
Open AccessArticle Enhanced Electronic Properties of [email protected] Heterostructured Nanoparticles
Sensors 2013, 13(6), 7813-7826; https://doi.org/10.3390/s130607813
Received: 2 May 2013 / Revised: 11 June 2013 / Accepted: 14 June 2013 / Published: 18 June 2013
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 3114 | PDF Full-text (1007 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Platinum coated by silver nanoparticles was synthesized, which displays a unique structure where polycrystalline platinum particles are completely encapsulated in continuous monocrystalline silver shells. These particles display accentuated electronic properties, where the silver shells gain electron density from the platinum cores, imparting enhanced
[...] Read more.
Platinum coated by silver nanoparticles was synthesized, which displays a unique structure where polycrystalline platinum particles are completely encapsulated in continuous monocrystalline silver shells. These particles display accentuated electronic properties, where the silver shells gain electron density from the platinum cores, imparting enhanced properties such as oxidation resistance. This electron transfer phenomenon is highly interfacial in nature, and the degree of electron transfer decreases as the thickness of silver shell increases. The nanoparticle structure and electronic properties are studied and the implication to creating sensing probes with enhanced robustness, sensitivity and controllable plasmonic properties is discussed. Full article
Open AccessArticle Performance Evaluation of UHF RFID Technologies for Real-Time Bus Recognition in the Taipei Bus Station
Sensors 2013, 13(6), 7797-7812; https://doi.org/10.3390/s130607797
Received: 18 April 2013 / Revised: 7 June 2013 / Accepted: 8 June 2013 / Published: 18 June 2013
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2786 | PDF Full-text (1128 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Transport stations such as airports, ports, and railways have adopted blocked-type pathway management to process and control travel systems in a one-directional manner. However, this excludes highway transportation where large buses have great variability and mobility; thus, an instant influx of numerous buses
[...] Read more.
Transport stations such as airports, ports, and railways have adopted blocked-type pathway management to process and control travel systems in a one-directional manner. However, this excludes highway transportation where large buses have great variability and mobility; thus, an instant influx of numerous buses increases risks and complicates station management. Focusing on Taipei Bus Station, this study employed RFID technology to develop a system platform integrated with modern information technology that has numerous characteristics. This modern information technology comprised the following systems: ultra-high frequency (UHF) radio-frequency identification (RFID), ultrasound and license number identification, and backstage graphic controls. In conclusion, the system enabled management, bus companies, and passengers to experience the national bus station’s new generation technology, which provides diverse information and synchronization functions. Furthermore, this technology reached a new milestone in the energy-saving and efficiency-increasing performance of Taiwan’s buses. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Physical Sensors)
Open AccessArticle Power Measurement Methods for Energy Efficient Applications
Sensors 2013, 13(6), 7786-7796; https://doi.org/10.3390/s130607786
Received: 6 April 2013 / Revised: 4 June 2013 / Accepted: 6 June 2013 / Published: 18 June 2013
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2655 | PDF Full-text (300 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Energy consumption constraints on computing systems are more important than ever. Maintenance costs for high performance systems are limiting the applicability of processing devices with large dissipation power. New solutions are needed to increase both the computation capability and the power efficiency. Moreover,
[...] Read more.
Energy consumption constraints on computing systems are more important than ever. Maintenance costs for high performance systems are limiting the applicability of processing devices with large dissipation power. New solutions are needed to increase both the computation capability and the power efficiency. Moreover, energy efficient applications should balance performance vs. consumption. Therefore power data of components are important. This work presents the most remarkable alternatives to measure the power consumption of different types of computing systems, describing the advantages and limitations of available power measurement systems. Finally, a methodology is proposed to select the right power consumption measurement system taking into account precision of the measure, scalability and controllability of the acquisition system. Full article
Open AccessArticle Impedimetric DNA Biosensor Based on a Nanoporous Alumina Membrane for the Detection of the Specific Oligonucleotide Sequence of Dengue Virus
Sensors 2013, 13(6), 7774-7785; https://doi.org/10.3390/s130607774
Received: 22 April 2013 / Revised: 7 June 2013 / Accepted: 13 June 2013 / Published: 17 June 2013
Cited by 34 | Viewed by 3163 | PDF Full-text (496 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A novel and integrated membrane sensing platform for DNA detection is developed based on an anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) membrane. Platinum electrodes (~50–100 nm thick) are coated directly on both sides of the alumina membrane to eliminate the solution resistance outside the nanopores.
[...] Read more.
A novel and integrated membrane sensing platform for DNA detection is developed based on an anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) membrane. Platinum electrodes (~50–100 nm thick) are coated directly on both sides of the alumina membrane to eliminate the solution resistance outside the nanopores. The electrochemical impedance technique is employed to monitor the impedance changes within the nanopores upon DNA binding. Pore resistance (Rp) linearly increases in response towards the increasing concentration of the target DNA in the range of 1 × 10−12 to 1 × 10−6 M. Moreover, the biosensor selectively differentiates the complementary sequence from single base mismatched (MM-1) strands and non-complementary strands. This study reveals a simple, selective and sensitive method to fabricate a label-free DNA biosensor. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Novel Tools in Electrochemical Sensing)
Open AccessArticle Robust Vehicle Detection under Various Environmental Conditions Using an Infrared Thermal Camera and Its Application to Road Traffic Flow Monitoring
Sensors 2013, 13(6), 7756-7773; https://doi.org/10.3390/s130607756
Received: 15 April 2013 / Revised: 1 June 2013 / Accepted: 7 June 2013 / Published: 17 June 2013
Cited by 18 | Viewed by 4139 | PDF Full-text (667 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
We have already proposed a method for detecting vehicle positions and their movements (henceforth referred to as “our previous method”) using thermal images taken with an infrared thermal camera. Our experiments have shown that our previous method detects vehicles robustly under four different
[...] Read more.
We have already proposed a method for detecting vehicle positions and their movements (henceforth referred to as “our previous method”) using thermal images taken with an infrared thermal camera. Our experiments have shown that our previous method detects vehicles robustly under four different environmental conditions which involve poor visibility conditions in snow and thick fog. Our previous method uses the windshield and its surroundings as the target of the Viola-Jones detector. Some experiments in winter show that the vehicle detection accuracy decreases because the temperatures of many windshields approximate those of the exterior of the windshields. In this paper, we propose a new vehicle detection method (henceforth referred to as “our new method”). Our new method detects vehicles based on tires’ thermal energy reflection. We have done experiments using three series of thermal images for which the vehicle detection accuracies of our previous method are low. Our new method detects 1,417 vehicles (92.8%) out of 1,527 vehicles, and the number of false detection is 52 in total. Therefore, by combining our two methods, high vehicle detection accuracies are maintained under various environmental conditions. Finally, we apply the traffic information obtained by our two methods to traffic flow automatic monitoring, and show the effectiveness of our proposal. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Physical Sensors)
Open AccessArticle Design of a Wearable Sensing System for Human Motion Monitoring in Physical Rehabilitation
Sensors 2013, 13(6), 7735-7755; https://doi.org/10.3390/s130607735
Received: 23 April 2013 / Revised: 21 May 2013 / Accepted: 13 June 2013 / Published: 17 June 2013
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 4480 | PDF Full-text (17714 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Human motion monitoring and analysis can be an essential part of a wide spectrum of applications, including physical rehabilitation among other potential areas of interest. Creating non-invasive systems for monitoring patients while performing rehabilitation exercises, to provide them with an objective feedback, is
[...] Read more.
Human motion monitoring and analysis can be an essential part of a wide spectrum of applications, including physical rehabilitation among other potential areas of interest. Creating non-invasive systems for monitoring patients while performing rehabilitation exercises, to provide them with an objective feedback, is one of the current challenges. In this paper we present a wearable multi-sensor system for human motion monitoring, which has been developed for use in rehabilitation. It is composed of a number of small modules that embed high-precision accelerometers and wireless communications to transmit the information related to the body motion to an acquisition device. The results of a set of experiments we made to assess its performance in real-world setups demonstrate its usefulness in human motion acquisition and tracking, as required, for example, in activity recognition, physical/athletic performance evaluation and rehabilitation. Full article
(This article belongs to the collection Sensors for Globalized Healthy Living and Wellbeing)
Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle Geometric Feature-Based Facial Expression Recognition in Image Sequences Using Multi-Class AdaBoost and Support Vector Machines
Sensors 2013, 13(6), 7714-7734; https://doi.org/10.3390/s130607714
Received: 3 May 2013 / Revised: 29 May 2013 / Accepted: 3 June 2013 / Published: 14 June 2013
Cited by 55 | Viewed by 5653 | PDF Full-text (1159 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Facial expressions are widely used in the behavioral interpretation of emotions, cognitive science, and social interactions. In this paper, we present a novel method for fully automatic facial expression recognition in facial image sequences. As the facial expression evolves over time facial landmarks
[...] Read more.
Facial expressions are widely used in the behavioral interpretation of emotions, cognitive science, and social interactions. In this paper, we present a novel method for fully automatic facial expression recognition in facial image sequences. As the facial expression evolves over time facial landmarks are automatically tracked in consecutive video frames, using displacements based on elastic bunch graph matching displacement estimation. Feature vectors from individual landmarks, as well as pairs of landmarks tracking results are extracted, and normalized, with respect to the first frame in the sequence. The prototypical expression sequence for each class of facial expression is formed, by taking the median of the landmark tracking results from the training facial expression sequences. Multi-class AdaBoost with dynamic time warping similarity distance between the feature vector of input facial expression and prototypical facial expression, is used as a weak classifier to select the subset of discriminative feature vectors. Finally, two methods for facial expression recognition are presented, either by using multi-class AdaBoost with dynamic time warping, or by using support vector machine on the boosted feature vectors. The results on the Cohn-Kanade (CK+) facial expression database show a recognition accuracy of 95.17% and 97.35% using multi-class AdaBoost and support vector machines, respectively. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Physical Sensors)
Open AccessReview Integration of Biosensors and Drug Delivery Technologies for Early Detection and Chronic Management of Illness
Sensors 2013, 13(6), 7680-7713; https://doi.org/10.3390/s130607680
Received: 27 February 2013 / Revised: 21 May 2013 / Accepted: 7 June 2013 / Published: 14 June 2013
Cited by 16 | Viewed by 4377 | PDF Full-text (1282 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Recent advances in biosensor design and sensing efficacy need to be amalgamated with research in responsive drug delivery systems for building superior health or illness regimes and ensuring good patient compliance. A variety of illnesses require continuous monitoring in order to have efficient
[...] Read more.
Recent advances in biosensor design and sensing efficacy need to be amalgamated with research in responsive drug delivery systems for building superior health or illness regimes and ensuring good patient compliance. A variety of illnesses require continuous monitoring in order to have efficient illness intervention. Physicochemical changes in the body can signify the occurrence of an illness before it manifests. Even with the usage of sensors that allow diagnosis and prognosis of the illness, medical intervention still has its downfalls. Late detection of illness can reduce the efficacy of therapeutics. Furthermore, the conventional modes of treatment can cause side-effects such as tissue damage (chemotherapy and rhabdomyolysis) and induce other forms of illness (hepatotoxicity). The use of drug delivery systems enables the lowering of side-effects with subsequent improvement in patient compliance. Chronic illnesses require continuous monitoring and medical intervention for efficient treatment to be achieved. Therefore, designing a responsive system that will reciprocate to the physicochemical changes may offer superior therapeutic activity. In this respect, integration of biosensors and drug delivery is a proficient approach and requires designing an implantable system that has a closed loop system. This offers regulation of the changes by means of releasing a therapeutic agent whenever illness biomarkers prevail. Proper selection of biomarkers is vital as this is key for diagnosis and a stimulation factor for responsive drug delivery. By detecting an illness before it manifests by means of biomarkers levels, therapeutic dosing would relate to the severity of such changes. In this review various biosensors and drug delivery systems are discussed in order to assess the challenges and future perspectives of integrating biosensors and drug delivery systems for detection and management of chronic illness. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biosensors)
Open AccessArticle Voltammetric Determination of Cocaine in Confiscated Samples Using a Carbon Paste Electrode Modified with Different [UO2(X-MeOsalen)(H2O)]·H2O Complexes
Sensors 2013, 13(6), 7668-7679; https://doi.org/10.3390/s130607668
Received: 20 April 2013 / Revised: 27 May 2013 / Accepted: 5 June 2013 / Published: 14 June 2013
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 3272 | PDF Full-text (600 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A fast and non-destructive voltammetric method to detect cocaine in confiscated samples based on carbon paste electrode modified with methoxy-substituted N,N'-ethylene-bis(salcylideneiminato)uranyl(VI)complexes, [UO2(X-MeOSalen)(H2O)]·H2O, where X corresponds to the positions 3, 4 or 5 of the methoxy group on
[...] Read more.
A fast and non-destructive voltammetric method to detect cocaine in confiscated samples based on carbon paste electrode modified with methoxy-substituted N,N'-ethylene-bis(salcylideneiminato)uranyl(VI)complexes, [UO2(X-MeOSalen)(H2O)]·H2O, where X corresponds to the positions 3, 4 or 5 of the methoxy group on the aromatic ring, is described. The electrochemical behavior of the modified electrode and the electrochemical detection of cocaine were investigated using cyclic voltammetry. Using 0.1 mol·L−1 KCl as supporting-electrolyte, a concentration-dependent, well-defined peak current for cocaine at 0.62 V, with an amperometric sensitivity of 6.25 × 104 μA·mol·L−1 for cocaine concentrations ranging between 1.0 × 10−7 and 1.3 × 10−6 mol·L−1 was obtained. Chemical interference studies using lidocaine and procaine were performed. The position of the methoxy group affects the results, with the 3-methoxy derivative being the most sensitive. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Novel Tools in Electrochemical Sensing)
Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle CrossVit: Enhancing Canopy Monitoring Management Practices in Viticulture
Sensors 2013, 13(6), 7652-7667; https://doi.org/10.3390/s130607652
Received: 3 May 2013 / Revised: 5 June 2013 / Accepted: 6 June 2013 / Published: 13 June 2013
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 2915 | PDF Full-text (917 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A new wireless sensor network (WSN), called CrossVit, and based on MEMSIC products, has been tested for two growing seasons in two vineyards in Italy. The aims are to evaluate the monitoring performances of the new WSN directly in the vineyard and collect
[...] Read more.
A new wireless sensor network (WSN), called CrossVit, and based on MEMSIC products, has been tested for two growing seasons in two vineyards in Italy. The aims are to evaluate the monitoring performances of the new WSN directly in the vineyard and collect air temperature, air humidity and solar radiation data to support vineyard management practices. The WSN consists of various levels: the Master/Gateway level coordinates the WSN and performs data aggregation; the Farm/Server level takes care of storing data on a server, data processing and graphic rendering; Nodes level is based on a network of peripheral nodes consisting of a MDA300 sensor board and Iris module and equipped with thermistors for air temperature, photodiodes for global and diffuse solar radiation, and an HTM2500LF sensor for relative humidity. The communication levels are: WSN links between gateways and sensor nodes by ZigBee, and long-range GSM/GPRS links between gateways and the server farm level. The system was able to monitor the agrometeorological parameters in the vineyard: solar radiation, air temperature and air humidity, detecting the differences between the canopy treatments applied. The performance of CrossVit, in terms of monitoring and reliability of the system, have been evaluated considering: its handiness, cost-effective, non-invasive dimensions and low power consumption. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Sensor Networks)
Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle Development of a Control System for the Teat-End Vacuum in Individual Quarter Milking Systems
Sensors 2013, 13(6), 7633-7651; https://doi.org/10.3390/s130607633
Received: 22 April 2013 / Revised: 30 May 2013 / Accepted: 31 May 2013 / Published: 13 June 2013
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2950 | PDF Full-text (1284 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Progress in sensor technique and electronics has led to a decrease in the costs of electronic and sensor components. In modern dairy farms, having udders in good condition, a lower frequency of udder disease and an extended service life of dairy cows will
[...] Read more.
Progress in sensor technique and electronics has led to a decrease in the costs of electronic and sensor components. In modern dairy farms, having udders in good condition, a lower frequency of udder disease and an extended service life of dairy cows will help ensure competitiveness. The objective of this study was to develop a teat-end vacuum control system with individual quarter actor reaction. Based on a review of the literature, this system is assumed to protect the teat tissue. It reduces the mean teat-end vacuum in the maximum vacuum phase (b) to a level of 20 kPa at a flow rate of 0.25 L/min per quarter. At flow rates higher than 1.50 L/min per quarter, the teat-end vacuum can be controlled to a level of 30 kPa, because in this case it is desirable to have a higher vacuum for the transportation of the milk to the receiver. With this system it is possible for the first time to supply the teat end with low vacuum at low flow rates and with higher vacuum at increasing flow rates in a continuous process with a three second reaction-rate on individual quarter level. This system is completely automated. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Physical Sensors)
Open AccessArticle Novel Magnetic Sensing Approach with Improved Linearity
Sensors 2013, 13(6), 7618-7632; https://doi.org/10.3390/s130607618
Received: 28 April 2013 / Revised: 1 June 2013 / Accepted: 1 June 2013 / Published: 13 June 2013
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 2612 | PDF Full-text (1298 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper introduces a novel contactless sensing principle conceived for measuring the rotation angle of a shaft. The sensor is based on a smart combination of low-cost components that can be effectively integrated in a mechanical assembly of a rotary joint. The working
[...] Read more.
This paper introduces a novel contactless sensing principle conceived for measuring the rotation angle of a shaft. The sensor is based on a smart combination of low-cost components that can be effectively integrated in a mechanical assembly of a rotary joint. The working principle is based on the relative rotation of a small diametrically magnetized cylindrical or annular magnet and at least one Hall effect sensor. One of the main strengths of the new sensing principle is to be adaptable to any assigned dimensions and encumbrances without typical design limitations given by the use of standard components. A numerical model is developed for predicting the sensor output characteristic on the base of the concept of magnetic charge. Such a model is validated against results from laboratory experiments. The parameters that define the geometry and layout of the sensor are optimized in order to maximize linearity over an assigned angular range of measurement. Two examples of mechatronic systems that employ the new sensing principle are presented in order to show the possibility of obtaining with the new principle a compact/integrated sensor-design. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Physical Sensors)
Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle Two Phase Non-Rigid Multi-Modal Image Registration Using Weber Local Descriptor-Based Similarity Metrics and Normalized Mutual Information
Sensors 2013, 13(6), 7599-7617; https://doi.org/10.3390/s130607599
Received: 3 April 2013 / Revised: 24 May 2013 / Accepted: 5 June 2013 / Published: 13 June 2013
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 3644 | PDF Full-text (1054 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Non-rigid multi-modal image registration plays an important role in medical image processing and analysis. Existing image registration methods based on similarity metrics such as mutual information (MI) and sum of squared differences (SSD) cannot achieve either high registration accuracy or high registration efficiency.
[...] Read more.
Non-rigid multi-modal image registration plays an important role in medical image processing and analysis. Existing image registration methods based on similarity metrics such as mutual information (MI) and sum of squared differences (SSD) cannot achieve either high registration accuracy or high registration efficiency. To address this problem, we propose a novel two phase non-rigid multi-modal image registration method by combining Weber local descriptor (WLD) based similarity metrics with the normalized mutual information (NMI) using the diffeomorphic free-form deformation (FFD) model. The first phase aims at recovering the large deformation component using the WLD based non-local SSD (wldNSSD) or weighted structural similarity (wldWSSIM). Based on the output of the former phase, the second phase is focused on getting accurate transformation parameters related to the small deformation using the NMI. Extensive experiments on T1, T2 and PD weighted MR images demonstrate that the proposed wldNSSD-NMI or wldWSSIM-NMI method outperforms the registration methods based on the NMI, the conditional mutual information (CMI), the SSD on entropy images (ESSD) and the ESSD-NMI in terms of registration accuracy and computation efficiency. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Medical & Biological Imaging)
Open AccessReview Aspects of the Application of Cavity Enhanced Spectroscopy to Nitrogen Oxides Detection
Sensors 2013, 13(6), 7570-7598; https://doi.org/10.3390/s130607570
Received: 10 April 2013 / Revised: 2 May 2013 / Accepted: 27 May 2013 / Published: 10 June 2013
Cited by 20 | Viewed by 4129 | PDF Full-text (1669 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This article presents design issues of high-sensitive laser absorption spectroscopy systems for nitrogen oxides (NOx) detection. Examples of our systems and their investigation results are also described. The constructed systems use one of the most sensitive methods, cavity enhanced absorption spectroscopy
[...] Read more.
This article presents design issues of high-sensitive laser absorption spectroscopy systems for nitrogen oxides (NOx) detection. Examples of our systems and their investigation results are also described. The constructed systems use one of the most sensitive methods, cavity enhanced absorption spectroscopy (CEAS). They operate at different wavelength ranges using a blue—violet laser diode (410 nm) as well as quantum cascade lasers (5.27 µm and 4.53 µm). Each of them is configured as a one or two channel measurement device using, e.g., time division multiplexing and averaging. During the testing procedure, the main performance features such as detection limits and measurements uncertainties have been determined. The obtained results are 1 ppb NO2, 75 ppb NO and 45 ppb N2O. For all systems, the uncertainty of concentration measurements does not exceed a value of 13%. Some experiments with explosives are also discussed. A setup equipped with a concentrator of explosives vapours was used. The detection method is based either on the reaction of the sensors to the nitrogen oxides directly emitted by the explosives or on the reaction to the nitrogen oxides produced during thermal decomposition of explosive vapours. For TNT, PETN, RDX and HMX a detection limit better than 1 ng has been achieved. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Laser Sensing and Imaging)
Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle Accurate Human Tissue Characterization for Energy-Efficient Wireless On-Body Communications
Sensors 2013, 13(6), 7546-7569; https://doi.org/10.3390/s130607546
Received: 29 March 2013 / Revised: 27 May 2013 / Accepted: 3 June 2013 / Published: 10 June 2013
Cited by 16 | Viewed by 3122 | PDF Full-text (1064 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The demand for Wireless Body Sensor Networks (WBSNs) is rapidly increasing due to the revolution in wearable systems demonstrated by the penetration of on-the-body sensors in hospitals, sports medicine and general health-care practices. In WBSN, the body acts as a communication channel for
[...] Read more.
The demand for Wireless Body Sensor Networks (WBSNs) is rapidly increasing due to the revolution in wearable systems demonstrated by the penetration of on-the-body sensors in hospitals, sports medicine and general health-care practices. In WBSN, the body acts as a communication channel for the propagation of electromagnetic (EM) waves, where losses are mainly due to absorption of power in the tissue. This paper shows the effects of the dielectric properties of biological tissues in the signal strength and, for the first time, relates these effects with the human body composition. After a careful analysis of results, this work proposes a reactive algorithm for power transmission to alleviate the effect of body movement and body type. This policy achieves up to 40.8% energy savings in a realistic scenario with no performance overhead. Full article
Open AccessArticle Deployment and Validation of a Smart System for Screening of Language Disorders in Primary Care
Sensors 2013, 13(6), 7522-7545; https://doi.org/10.3390/s130607522
Received: 19 April 2013 / Revised: 10 May 2013 / Accepted: 4 June 2013 / Published: 10 June 2013
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 3710 | PDF Full-text (1081 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Neuro-evolutive development from birth until the age of six years is a decisive factor in a child’s quality of life. Early detection of development disorders in early childhood can facilitate necessary diagnosis and/or treatment. Primary-care pediatricians play a key role in its detection
[...] Read more.
Neuro-evolutive development from birth until the age of six years is a decisive factor in a child’s quality of life. Early detection of development disorders in early childhood can facilitate necessary diagnosis and/or treatment. Primary-care pediatricians play a key role in its detection as they can undertake the preventive and therapeutic actions requested to promote a child’s optimal development. However, the lack of time and little specific knowledge at primary-care avoid to applying continuous early-detection anomalies procedures. This research paper focuses on the deployment and evaluation of a smart system that enhances the screening of language disorders in primary care. Pediatricians get support to proceed with early referral of language disorders. The proposed model provides them with a decision-support tool for referral actions to trigger essential diagnostic and/or therapeutic actions for a comprehensive individual development. The research was conducted by starting from a sample of 60 cases of children with language disorders. Validation was carried out through two complementary steps: first, by including a team of seven experts from the fields of neonatology, pediatrics, neurology and language therapy, and, second, through the evaluation of 21 more previously diagnosed cases. The results obtained show that therapist positively accepted the system proposal in 18 cases (86%) and suggested system redesign for single referral to a speech therapist in three remaining cases. Full article
Open AccessArticle Early Improper Motion Detection in Golf Swings Using Wearable Motion Sensors: The First Approach
Sensors 2013, 13(6), 7505-7521; https://doi.org/10.3390/s130607505
Received: 28 February 2013 / Revised: 1 May 2013 / Accepted: 4 June 2013 / Published: 10 June 2013
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 3399 | PDF Full-text (576 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper presents an analysis of a golf swing to detect improper motion in the early phase of the swing. Led by the desire to achieve a consistent shot outcome, a particular golfer would (in multiple trials) prefer to perform completely identical golf
[...] Read more.
This paper presents an analysis of a golf swing to detect improper motion in the early phase of the swing. Led by the desire to achieve a consistent shot outcome, a particular golfer would (in multiple trials) prefer to perform completely identical golf swings. In reality, some deviations from the desired motion are always present due to the comprehensive nature of the swing motion. Swing motion deviations that are not detrimental to performance are acceptable. This analysis is conducted using a golfer’s leading arm kinematic data, which are obtained from a golfer wearing a motion sensor that is comprised of gyroscopes and accelerometers. Applying the principal component analysis (PCA) to the reference observations of properly performed swings, the PCA components of acceptable swing motion deviations are established. Using these components, the motion deviations in the observations of other swings are examined. Any unacceptable deviations that are detected indicate an improper swing motion. Arbitrarily long observations of an individual player’s swing sequences can be included in the analysis. The results obtained for the considered example show an improper swing motion in early phase of the swing, i.e., the first part of the backswing. An early detection method for improper swing motions that is conducted on an individual basis provides assistance for performance improvement. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Physical Sensors)
Figures

Graphical abstract

Back to Top