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Sensors, Volume 13, Issue 11 (November 2013) , Pages 14248-15862

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Open AccessCorrection Correction: Grenez, F., et al. Wireless Prototype Based on Pressure and Bending Sensors for Measuring Gait Quality. Sensors 2013, 13, 9679–9703
Sensors 2013, 13(11), 15861-15862; https://doi.org/10.3390/s131115861
Received: 12 September 2013 / Revised: 29 September 2013 / Accepted: 29 September 2013 / Published: 21 November 2013
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2010 | PDF Full-text (152 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In [1], we would like to change “Gate” to “Gait” in the title, which should read “Prototype Based on Pressure and Bending Sensors for Measuring Gait Quality”. In Figure 7 we would like to change the analog inputs. The measurements should be between [...] Read more.
In [1], we would like to change “Gate” to “Gait” in the title, which should read “Prototype Based on Pressure and Bending Sensors for Measuring Gait Quality”. In Figure 7 we would like to change the analog inputs. The measurements should be between the sensor and the resistance, and not after the resistance. The revised figure is shown below. [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Physical Sensors)
Open AccessArticle Development and Evaluation of an Improved Technique for Pulmonary Function Testing Using Electrical Impedance Pneumography Intended for the Diagnosis of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Patients
Sensors 2013, 13(11), 15846-15860; https://doi.org/10.3390/s131115846
Received: 8 September 2013 / Revised: 22 October 2013 / Accepted: 12 November 2013 / Published: 21 November 2013
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 3253 | PDF Full-text (972 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Spirometry is regarded as the only effective method for detecting pulmonary function test (PFT) indices. In this study, a novel impedance pulmonary function measurement system (IPFS) is developed for directly assessing PFT indices. IPFS can obtain high resolution values and remove motion artifacts [...] Read more.
Spirometry is regarded as the only effective method for detecting pulmonary function test (PFT) indices. In this study, a novel impedance pulmonary function measurement system (IPFS) is developed for directly assessing PFT indices. IPFS can obtain high resolution values and remove motion artifacts through real-time base impedance feedback. Feedback enables the detection of PFT indices using only both hands for convenience. IPFS showed no differences in the sitting, supine, and standing postures during the measurements, indicating that patient posture has no effect on IPFS. Mean distance analysis showed good agreement between the volume and flow signal of IPFS (p < 0.05). PFT indices were detected in subjects to differentiate a chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patient group from a normal group. The forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in the first second (FEV1), FEV1/FVC, and peak expiratory flow (PEF) in the COPD group were lower than those in the normal group by IPFS (p < 0.05). IPFS is therefore suitable for evaluating pulmonary function in normal and COPD patients. Moreover, IPFS could be useful for periodic monitoring of existing patients diagnosed with obstructive lung disease. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomedical Sensors and Systems)
Open AccessArticle Long-Wavelength Infrared Sensing by Cytochrome C Protein Thin Film Deposited by the Spin Coating Method
Sensors 2013, 13(11), 15833-15845; https://doi.org/10.3390/s131115833
Received: 7 October 2013 / Revised: 4 November 2013 / Accepted: 14 November 2013 / Published: 20 November 2013
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2527 | PDF Full-text (2151 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
High infrared absorption, large temperature coefficient of resistance (TCR) and small 1/f noise are preferred characteristics for sensing materials used in bolometers. In this paper, we discuss a cytochrome c protein as a potential sensing material for long-wavelength bolometers. We simulated and experimentally [...] Read more.
High infrared absorption, large temperature coefficient of resistance (TCR) and small 1/f noise are preferred characteristics for sensing materials used in bolometers. In this paper, we discuss a cytochrome c protein as a potential sensing material for long-wavelength bolometers. We simulated and experimentally proved high infrared absorption of cytochrome c in the wavelength between 8 μm and 14 μm. Cytochrome c thin films were deposited on a hydrophilic surface using the spin coating method. The resistance variation with temperature is measured and we show that the TCR of cytochrome c thin films is consistently higher than 20%. The measured values of 1/f noise were as low as 2.33 × 1013 V2/Hz at 60 Hz. Finally, we test the reliability of cytochrome c by measuring the resistance changes over time under varying conditions. We found that cytochrome c thin films deteriorated significantly without appropriate packaging. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Photonic Sensors for Industrial, Environmental and Health Monitoring)
Open AccessArticle Neuro-Inspired Spike-Based Motion: From Dynamic Vision Sensor to Robot Motor Open-Loop Control through Spike-VITE
Sensors 2013, 13(11), 15805-15832; https://doi.org/10.3390/s131115805
Received: 5 October 2013 / Revised: 11 November 2013 / Accepted: 13 November 2013 / Published: 20 November 2013
Cited by 24 | Viewed by 4742 | PDF Full-text (1220 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this paper we present a complete spike-based architecture: from a Dynamic Vision Sensor (retina) to a stereo head robotic platform. The aim of this research is to reproduce intended movements performed by humans taking into account as many features as possible from [...] Read more.
In this paper we present a complete spike-based architecture: from a Dynamic Vision Sensor (retina) to a stereo head robotic platform. The aim of this research is to reproduce intended movements performed by humans taking into account as many features as possible from the biological point of view. This paper fills the gap between current spike silicon sensors and robotic actuators by applying a spike processing strategy to the data flows in real time. The architecture is divided into layers: the retina, visual information processing, the trajectory generator layer which uses a neuroinspired algorithm (SVITE) that can be replicated into as many times as DoF the robot has; and finally the actuation layer to supply the spikes to the robot (using PFM). All the layers do their tasks in a spike-processing mode, and they communicate each other through the neuro-inspired AER protocol. The open-loop controller is implemented on FPGA using AER interfaces developed by RTC Lab. Experimental results reveal the viability of this spike-based controller. Two main advantages are: low hardware resources (2% of a Xilinx Spartan 6) and power requirements (3.4 W) to control a robot with a high number of DoF (up to 100 for a Xilinx Spartan 6). It also evidences the suitable use of AER as a communication protocol between processing and actuation. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Design and Implementation of a Micromechanical Silicon Resonant Accelerometer
Sensors 2013, 13(11), 15785-15804; https://doi.org/10.3390/s131115785
Received: 26 August 2013 / Revised: 4 November 2013 / Accepted: 7 November 2013 / Published: 19 November 2013
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 3098 | PDF Full-text (798 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
The micromechanical silicon resonant accelerometer has attracted considerable attention in the research and development of high-precision MEMS accelerometers because of its output of quasi-digital signals, high sensitivity, high resolution, wide dynamic range, anti-interference capacity and good stability. Because of the mismatching thermal expansion [...] Read more.
The micromechanical silicon resonant accelerometer has attracted considerable attention in the research and development of high-precision MEMS accelerometers because of its output of quasi-digital signals, high sensitivity, high resolution, wide dynamic range, anti-interference capacity and good stability. Because of the mismatching thermal expansion coefficients of silicon and glass, the micromechanical silicon resonant accelerometer based on the Silicon on Glass (SOG) technique is deeply affected by the temperature during the fabrication, packaging and use processes. The thermal stress caused by temperature changes directly affects the frequency output of the accelerometer. Based on the working principle of the micromechanical resonant accelerometer, a special accelerometer structure that reduces the temperature influence on the accelerometer is designed. The accelerometer can greatly reduce the thermal stress caused by high temperatures in the process of fabrication and packaging. Currently, the closed-loop drive circuit is devised based on a phase-locked loop. The unloaded resonant frequencies of the prototype of the micromechanical silicon resonant accelerometer are approximately 31.4 kHz and 31.5 kHz. The scale factor is 66.24003 Hz/g. The scale factor stability is 14.886 ppm, the scale factor repeatability is 23 ppm, the bias stability is 23 μg, the bias repeatability is 170 μg, and the bias temperature coefficient is 0.0734 Hz/°C. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Modeling, Testing and Reliability Issues in MEMS Engineering 2013)
Open AccessArticle Two Novel Measurements for the Drive-Mode Resonant Frequency of a Micromachined Vibratory Gyroscope
Sensors 2013, 13(11), 15770-15784; https://doi.org/10.3390/s131115770
Received: 5 September 2013 / Revised: 1 November 2013 / Accepted: 1 November 2013 / Published: 19 November 2013
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2201 | PDF Full-text (462 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
To investigate the drive-mode resonance frequency of a micromachined vibratory gyroscope (MVG), one needs to measure it accurately and efficiently. The conventional approach to measure the resonant frequency is by performing a sweep frequency test and spectrum analysis. The method is time-consuming and [...] Read more.
To investigate the drive-mode resonance frequency of a micromachined vibratory gyroscope (MVG), one needs to measure it accurately and efficiently. The conventional approach to measure the resonant frequency is by performing a sweep frequency test and spectrum analysis. The method is time-consuming and inconvenient because of the requirements of many test points, a lot of data storage and off-line analyses. In this paper, we propose two novel measurement methods, the search method and track method, respectively. The former is based on the magnitude-frequency characteristics of the drive mode, utilizing a one-dimensional search technique. The latter is based on the phase-frequency characteristics, applying a feedback control loop. Their performances in precision, noise resistivity and efficiency are analyzed through detailed simulations. A test system is implemented based on a field programmable gate array (FPGA) and experiments are carried out. By comparing with the common approach, feasibility and superiorities of the proposed methods are validated. In particular, significant efficiency improvements are achieved whereby the conventional frequency method consumes nearly 5,000 s to finish a measurement, while only 5 s is needed for the track method and 1 s for the search method. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Physical Sensors)
Open AccessArticle A Novel Porphyrin-Containing Polyimide Nanofibrous Membrane for Colorimetric and Fluorometric Detection of Pyridine Vapor
Sensors 2013, 13(11), 15758-15769; https://doi.org/10.3390/s131115758
Received: 16 October 2013 / Revised: 28 October 2013 / Accepted: 30 October 2013 / Published: 19 November 2013
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 2520 | PDF Full-text (495 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A novel zinc porphyrin-containing polyimide (ZPCPI) nanofibrous membrane for rapid and reversible detection of trace amounts of pyridine vapor is described. The membrane displays a distinct color change, as well as dramatic variations in absorption and fluorescent emission spectra, upon exposure to pyridine [...] Read more.
A novel zinc porphyrin-containing polyimide (ZPCPI) nanofibrous membrane for rapid and reversible detection of trace amounts of pyridine vapor is described. The membrane displays a distinct color change, as well as dramatic variations in absorption and fluorescent emission spectra, upon exposure to pyridine vapor. This condition allows the detection of the analyte at concentrations as low as 0.041 ppm. The vapochromic and spectrophotometric responses of the membrane are attributed to the formation of the ZPCPI-pyridine complex upon axial coordination. From surface plasmon resonance analysis, the affinity constant of ZPCPI-pyridine complex was calculated to be (3.98 ± 0.25) × 104 L·mol−1. The ZPCPI nanofibrous membrane also showed excellent selectivity for pyridine vapor over other common amines, confirming its applicability in the manufacture of pyridine-sensitive gas sensors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Chemical Sensors)
Open AccessArticle On-Line Thickness Measurement for Two-Layer Systems on Polymer Electronic Devices
Sensors 2013, 13(11), 15747-15757; https://doi.org/10.3390/s131115747
Received: 25 September 2013 / Revised: 24 October 2013 / Accepted: 11 November 2013 / Published: 18 November 2013
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2421 | PDF Full-text (699 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
During the manufacturing of printed electronic circuits, different layers of coatings are applied successively on a substrate. The correct thickness of such layers is essential for guaranteeing the electronic behavior of the final product and must therefore be controlled thoroughly. This paper presents [...] Read more.
During the manufacturing of printed electronic circuits, different layers of coatings are applied successively on a substrate. The correct thickness of such layers is essential for guaranteeing the electronic behavior of the final product and must therefore be controlled thoroughly. This paper presents a model for measuring two-layer systems through thin film reflectometry (TFR). The model considers irregular interfaces and distortions introduced by the setup and the vertical vibration movements caused by the production process. The results show that the introduction of these latter variables is indispensable to obtain correct thickness values. The proposed approach is applied to a typical configuration of polymer electronics on transparent and non-transparent substrates. We compare our results to those obtained using a profilometer. The high degree of agreement between both measurements validates the model and suggests that the proposed measurement method can be used in industrial applications requiring fast and non-contact inspection of two-layer systems. Moreover, this approach can be used for other kinds of materials with known optical parameters. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Optomechatronics)
Open AccessArticle A Doppler Transient Model Based on the Laplace Wavelet and Spectrum Correlation Assessment for Locomotive Bearing Fault Diagnosis
Sensors 2013, 13(11), 15726-15746; https://doi.org/10.3390/s131115726
Received: 27 September 2013 / Revised: 3 November 2013 / Accepted: 11 November 2013 / Published: 18 November 2013
Cited by 23 | Viewed by 2307 | PDF Full-text (712 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The condition of locomotive bearings, which are essential components in trains, is crucial to train safety. The Doppler effect significantly distorts acoustic signals during high movement speeds, substantially increasing the difficulty of monitoring locomotive bearings online. In this study, a new Doppler transient [...] Read more.
The condition of locomotive bearings, which are essential components in trains, is crucial to train safety. The Doppler effect significantly distorts acoustic signals during high movement speeds, substantially increasing the difficulty of monitoring locomotive bearings online. In this study, a new Doppler transient model based on the acoustic theory and the Laplace wavelet is presented for the identification of fault-related impact intervals embedded in acoustic signals. An envelope spectrum correlation assessment is conducted between the transient model and the real fault signal in the frequency domain to optimize the model parameters. The proposed method can identify the parameters used for simulated transients (periods in simulated transients) from acoustic signals. Thus, localized bearing faults can be detected successfully based on identified parameters, particularly period intervals. The performance of the proposed method is tested on a simulated signal suffering from the Doppler effect. Besides, the proposed method is used to analyze real acoustic signals of locomotive bearings with inner race and outer race faults, respectively. The results confirm that the periods between the transients, which represent locomotive bearing fault characteristics, can be detected successfully. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Physical Sensors)
Open AccessArticle On the Convergence of Ionospheric Constrained Precise Point Positioning (IC-PPP) Based on Undifferential Uncombined Raw GNSS Observations
Sensors 2013, 13(11), 15708-15725; https://doi.org/10.3390/s131115708
Received: 11 September 2013 / Revised: 21 October 2013 / Accepted: 8 November 2013 / Published: 18 November 2013
Cited by 26 | Viewed by 3072 | PDF Full-text (1210 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Precise Point Positioning (PPP) has become a very hot topic in GNSS research and applications. However, it usually takes about several tens of minutes in order to obtain positions with better than 10 cm accuracy. This prevents PPP from being widely used in [...] Read more.
Precise Point Positioning (PPP) has become a very hot topic in GNSS research and applications. However, it usually takes about several tens of minutes in order to obtain positions with better than 10 cm accuracy. This prevents PPP from being widely used in real-time kinematic positioning services, therefore, a large effort has been made to tackle the convergence problem. One of the recent approaches is the ionospheric delay constrained precise point positioning (IC-PPP) that uses the spatial and temporal characteristics of ionospheric delays and also delays from an a priori model. In this paper, the impact of the quality of ionospheric models on the convergence of IC-PPP is evaluated using the IGS global ionospheric map (GIM) updated every two hours and a regional satellite-specific correction model. Furthermore, the effect of the receiver differential code bias (DCB) is investigated by comparing the convergence time for IC-PPP with and without estimation of the DCB parameter. From the result of processing a large amount of data, on the one hand, the quality of the a priori ionosphere delays plays a very important role in IC-PPP convergence. Generally, regional dense GNSS networks can provide more precise ionosphere delays than GIM and can consequently reduce the convergence time. On the other hand, ignoring the receiver DCB may considerably extend its convergence, and the larger the DCB, the longer the convergence time. Estimating receiver DCB in IC-PPP is a proper way to overcome this problem. Therefore, current IC-PPP should be enhanced by estimating receiver DCB and employing regional satellite-specific ionospheric correction models in order to speed up its convergence for more practical applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Remote Sensors)
Open AccessArticle A Stochastic Approach to Noise Modeling for Barometric Altimeters
Sensors 2013, 13(11), 15692-15707; https://doi.org/10.3390/s131115692
Received: 30 August 2013 / Revised: 22 October 2013 / Accepted: 13 November 2013 / Published: 18 November 2013
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 2587 | PDF Full-text (632 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The question whether barometric altimeters can be applied to accurately track human motions is still debated, since their measurement performance are rather poor due to either coarse resolution or drifting behavior problems. As a step toward accurate short-time tracking of changes in height [...] Read more.
The question whether barometric altimeters can be applied to accurately track human motions is still debated, since their measurement performance are rather poor due to either coarse resolution or drifting behavior problems. As a step toward accurate short-time tracking of changes in height (up to few minutes), we develop a stochastic model that attempts to capture some statistical properties of the barometric altimeter noise. The barometric altimeter noise is decomposed in three components with different physical origin and properties: a deterministic time-varying mean, mainly correlated with global environment changes, and a first-order Gauss-Markov (GM) random process, mainly accounting for short-term, local environment changes, the effects of which are prominent, respectively, for long-time and short-time motion tracking; an uncorrelated random process, mainly due to wideband electronic noise, including quantization noise. Autoregressive-moving average (ARMA) system identification techniques are used to capture the correlation structure of the piecewise stationary GM component, and to estimate its standard deviation, together with the standard deviation of the uncorrelated component. M-point moving average filters used alone or in combination with whitening filters learnt from ARMA model parameters are further tested in few dynamic motion experiments and discussed for their capability of short-time tracking small-amplitude, low-frequency motions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Physical Sensors)
Open AccessArticle Active Tracking of Maja Squinado in the Mediterranean Sea with Wireless Acoustic Sensors: Method, Results and Prospectives
Sensors 2013, 13(11), 15682-15691; https://doi.org/10.3390/s131115682
Received: 9 September 2013 / Revised: 16 October 2013 / Accepted: 11 November 2013 / Published: 15 November 2013
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2496 | PDF Full-text (172 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The Sustainable TEchnologies for LittoraL Aquaculture and MArine REsearch (STELLA MARE) platform has as an objective to provide data for the management of the sea in relation with the fishing industry. In this paper, we introduce [...] Read more.
The Sustainable TEchnologies for LittoraL Aquaculture and MArine REsearch (STELLA MARE) platform has as an objective to provide data for the management of the sea in relation with the fishing industry. In this paper, we introduce the first experiment on the active tracking of a crab species, Maja squinado, symbolic of the deregulation of fishing activity. This paper introduces the method used for monitoring Maja squinado and the first collected data on the behavior of this little-known species. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Remote Sensors)
Open AccessArticle Building Kinetic Models for Determining Vitamin C Content in Fresh Jujube and Predicting Its Shelf Life Based on Near-Infrared Spectroscopy
Sensors 2013, 13(11), 15673-15681; https://doi.org/10.3390/s131115673
Received: 4 September 2013 / Revised: 20 October 2013 / Accepted: 1 November 2013 / Published: 15 November 2013
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2969 | PDF Full-text (307 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Fresh jujube (Ziziphus jujube) is rich in vitamin C, which is an important quality index and generally decreases with storage time. The aim of this study was to build kinetic models for determining the vitamin C content, thus predicting the quality [...] Read more.
Fresh jujube (Ziziphus jujube) is rich in vitamin C, which is an important quality index and generally decreases with storage time. The aim of this study was to build kinetic models for determining the vitamin C content, thus predicting the quality characteristics and shelf life of fresh jujube. The quality changes of the jujube stored at room temperature (20 °C) were analyzed using near-infrared spectroscopy. The significant spectra were determined and a calibration model for vitamin C content was developed. The results showed that vitamin C content could be described by the zero-order kinetics model based on the regressions. In addition, the shelf life of the jujube at room temperature was calculated according to the regression model. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Chemical Sensors)
Open AccessArticle Unscented Particle Filtering for Estimation of Shipboard Deformation Based on Inertial Measurement Units
Sensors 2013, 13(11), 15656-15672; https://doi.org/10.3390/s131115656
Received: 9 September 2013 / Revised: 14 October 2013 / Accepted: 5 November 2013 / Published: 15 November 2013
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2406 | PDF Full-text (546 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Shipboard is not an absolute rigid body. Many factors could cause deformations which lead to large errors of mounted devices, especially for the navigation systems. Such errors should be estimated and compensated effectively, or they will severely reduce the navigation accuracy of the [...] Read more.
Shipboard is not an absolute rigid body. Many factors could cause deformations which lead to large errors of mounted devices, especially for the navigation systems. Such errors should be estimated and compensated effectively, or they will severely reduce the navigation accuracy of the ship. In order to estimate the deformation, an unscented particle filter method for estimation of shipboard deformation based on an inertial measurement unit is presented. In this method, a nonlinear shipboard deformation model is built. Simulations demonstrated the accuracy reduction due to deformation. Then an attitude plus angular rate match mode is proposed as a frame to estimate the shipboard deformation using inertial measurement units. In this frame, for the nonlinearity of the system model, an unscented particle filter method is proposed to estimate and compensate the deformation angles. Simulations show that the proposed method gives accurate and rapid deformation estimations, which can increase navigation accuracy after compensation of deformation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Physical Sensors)
Open AccessArticle Temperature Measurement in WTE Boilers Using Suction Pyrometers
Sensors 2013, 13(11), 15633-15655; https://doi.org/10.3390/s131115633
Received: 10 September 2013 / Revised: 28 October 2013 / Accepted: 11 November 2013 / Published: 15 November 2013
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 2677 | PDF Full-text (1075 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The temperature of the flue-gas in the post combustion zone of a waste to energy (WTE) plant has to be maintained within a fairly narrow range of values, the minimum of which is prescribed by the European Waste Directive 2000/76/CE, whereas the maximum [...] Read more.
The temperature of the flue-gas in the post combustion zone of a waste to energy (WTE) plant has to be maintained within a fairly narrow range of values, the minimum of which is prescribed by the European Waste Directive 2000/76/CE, whereas the maximum value must be such as to ensure the preservation of the materials and the energy efficiency of the plant. A high degree of accuracy in measuring and controlling the aforementioned temperature is therefore required. In almost the totality of WTE plants this measurement process is carried out by using practical industrial thermometers, such as bare thermocouples and infrared radiation (IR) pyrometers, even if affected by different physical contributions which can make the gas temperature measurements incorrect. The objective of this paper is to analyze errors and uncertainties that can arise when using a bare thermocouple or an IR pyrometer in a WTE plant and to provide a method for the in situ calibration of these industrial sensors through the use of suction pyrometers. The paper describes principle of operation, design, and uncertainty contributions of suction pyrometers, it also provides the best estimation of the flue-gas temperature in the post combustion zone of a WTE plant and the estimation of its expanded uncertainty. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensors for Harsh-Environment Applications)
Open AccessArticle Assessment and Certification of Neonatal Incubator Sensors through an Inferential Neural Network
Sensors 2013, 13(11), 15613-15632; https://doi.org/10.3390/s131115613
Received: 11 September 2013 / Revised: 12 October 2013 / Accepted: 12 October 2013 / Published: 15 November 2013
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 4382 | PDF Full-text (2948 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Measurement and diagnostic systems based on electronic sensors have been increasingly essential in the standardization of hospital equipment. The technical standard IEC (International Electrotechnical Commission) 60601-2-19 establishes requirements for neonatal incubators and specifies the calibration procedure and validation tests for such devices using [...] Read more.
Measurement and diagnostic systems based on electronic sensors have been increasingly essential in the standardization of hospital equipment. The technical standard IEC (International Electrotechnical Commission) 60601-2-19 establishes requirements for neonatal incubators and specifies the calibration procedure and validation tests for such devices using sensors systems. This paper proposes a new procedure based on an inferential neural network to evaluate and calibrate a neonatal incubator. The proposal presents significant advantages over the standard calibration process, i.e., the number of sensors is drastically reduced, and it runs with the incubator under operation. Since the sensors used in the new calibration process are already installed in the commercial incubator, no additional hardware is necessary; and the calibration necessity can be diagnosed in real time without the presence of technical professionals in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). Experimental tests involving the aforementioned calibration system are carried out in a commercial incubator in order to validate the proposal. Full article
(This article belongs to the collection Sensors for Globalized Healthy Living and Wellbeing)
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Open AccessReview Data Management for the Internet of Things: Design Primitives and Solution
Sensors 2013, 13(11), 15582-15612; https://doi.org/10.3390/s131115582
Received: 11 July 2013 / Revised: 18 October 2013 / Accepted: 21 October 2013 / Published: 14 November 2013
Cited by 56 | Viewed by 5952 | PDF Full-text (710 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The Internet of Things (IoT) is a networking paradigm where interconnected, smart objects continuously generate data and transmit it over the Internet. Much of the IoT initiatives are geared towards manufacturing low-cost and energy-efficient hardware for these objects, as well as the communication [...] Read more.
The Internet of Things (IoT) is a networking paradigm where interconnected, smart objects continuously generate data and transmit it over the Internet. Much of the IoT initiatives are geared towards manufacturing low-cost and energy-efficient hardware for these objects, as well as the communication technologies that provide objects interconnectivity. However, the solutions to manage and utilize the massive volume of data produced by these objects are yet to mature. Traditional database management solutions fall short in satisfying the sophisticated application needs of an IoT network that has a truly global-scale. Current solutions for IoT data management address partial aspects of the IoT environment with special focus on sensor networks. In this paper, we survey the data management solutions that are proposed for IoT or subsystems of the IoT. We highlight the distinctive design primitives that we believe should be addressed in an IoT data management solution, and discuss how they are approached by the proposed solutions. We finally propose a data management framework for IoT that takes into consideration the discussed design elements and acts as a seed to a comprehensive IoT data management solution. The framework we propose adapts a federated, data- and sources-centric approach to link the diverse Things with their abundance of data to the potential applications and services that are envisioned for IoT. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Sensor Networks)
Open AccessArticle A Multimodal Emotion Detection System during Human–Robot Interaction
Sensors 2013, 13(11), 15549-15581; https://doi.org/10.3390/s131115549
Received: 7 August 2013 / Revised: 24 September 2013 / Accepted: 22 October 2013 / Published: 14 November 2013
Cited by 33 | Viewed by 4200 | PDF Full-text (12279 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this paper, a multimodal user-emotion detection system for social robots is presented. This system is intended to be used during human–robot interaction, and it is integrated as part of the overall interaction system of the robot: the Robotics Dialog System (RDS). Two [...] Read more.
In this paper, a multimodal user-emotion detection system for social robots is presented. This system is intended to be used during human–robot interaction, and it is integrated as part of the overall interaction system of the robot: the Robotics Dialog System (RDS). Two modes are used to detect emotions: the voice and face expression analysis. In order to analyze the voice of the user, a new component has been developed: Gender and Emotion Voice Analysis (GEVA), which is written using the Chuck language. For emotion detection in facial expressions, the system, Gender and Emotion Facial Analysis (GEFA), has been also developed. This last system integrates two third-party solutions: Sophisticated High-speed Object Recognition Engine (SHORE) and Computer Expression Recognition Toolbox (CERT). Once these new components (GEVA and GEFA) give their results, a decision rule is applied in order to combine the information given by both of them. The result of this rule, the detected emotion, is integrated into the dialog system through communicative acts. Hence, each communicative act gives, among other things, the detected emotion of the user to the RDS so it can adapt its strategy in order to get a greater satisfaction degree during the human–robot dialog. Each of the new components, GEVA and GEFA, can also be used individually. Moreover, they are integrated with the robotic control platform ROS (Robot Operating System). Several experiments with real users were performed to determine the accuracy of each component and to set the final decision rule. The results obtained from applying this decision rule in these experiments show a high success rate in automatic user emotion recognition, improving the results given by the two information channels (audio and visual) separately. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Physical Sensors)
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Open AccessArticle Discrimination Method of the Volatiles from Fresh Mushrooms by an Electronic Nose Using a Trapping System and Statistical Standardization to Reduce Sensor Value Variation
Sensors 2013, 13(11), 15532-15548; https://doi.org/10.3390/s131115532
Received: 10 October 2013 / Revised: 3 November 2013 / Accepted: 6 November 2013 / Published: 13 November 2013
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 3186 | PDF Full-text (1170 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Electronic noses have the benefit of obtaining smell information in a simple and objective manner, therefore, many applications have been developed for broad analysis areas such as food, drinks, cosmetics, medicine, and agriculture. However, measurement values from electronic noses have a tendency to [...] Read more.
Electronic noses have the benefit of obtaining smell information in a simple and objective manner, therefore, many applications have been developed for broad analysis areas such as food, drinks, cosmetics, medicine, and agriculture. However, measurement values from electronic noses have a tendency to vary under humidity or alcohol exposure conditions, since several types of sensors in the devices are affected by such variables. Consequently, we show three techniques for reducing the variation of sensor values: (1) using a trapping system to reduce the infering components; (2) performing statistical standardization (calculation of z-score); and (3) selecting suitable sensors. With these techniques, we discriminated the volatiles of four types of fresh mushrooms: golden needle (Flammulina velutipes), white mushroom (Agaricus bisporus), shiitake (Lentinus edodes), and eryngii (Pleurotus eryngii) among six fresh mushrooms (hen of the woods (Grifola frondosa), shimeji (Hypsizygus marmoreus) plus the above mushrooms). Additionally, we succeeded in discrimination of white mushroom, only comparing with artificial mushroom flavors, such as champignon flavor and truffle flavor. In conclusion, our techniques will expand the options to reduce variations in sensor values. Full article
Open AccessArticle Kalman/Map Filtering-Aided Fast Normalized Cross Correlation-Based Wi-Fi Fingerprinting Location Sensing
Sensors 2013, 13(11), 15513-15531; https://doi.org/10.3390/s131115513
Received: 26 September 2013 / Revised: 6 November 2013 / Accepted: 7 November 2013 / Published: 13 November 2013
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 2455 | PDF Full-text (467 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
A Kalman/map filtering (KMF)-aided fast normalized cross correlation (FNCC)-based Wi-Fi fingerprinting location sensing system is proposed in this paper. Compared with conventional neighbor selection algorithms that calculate localization results with received signal strength (RSS) mean samples, the proposed FNCC algorithm makes use of [...] Read more.
A Kalman/map filtering (KMF)-aided fast normalized cross correlation (FNCC)-based Wi-Fi fingerprinting location sensing system is proposed in this paper. Compared with conventional neighbor selection algorithms that calculate localization results with received signal strength (RSS) mean samples, the proposed FNCC algorithm makes use of all the on-line RSS samples and reference point RSS variations to achieve higher fingerprinting accuracy. The FNCC computes efficiently while maintaining the same accuracy as the basic normalized cross correlation. Additionally, a KMF is also proposed to process fingerprinting localization results. It employs a new map matching algorithm to nonlinearize the linear location prediction process of Kalman filtering (KF) that takes advantage of spatial proximities of consecutive localization results. With a calibration model integrated into an indoor map, the map matching algorithm corrects unreasonable prediction locations of the KF according to the building interior structure. Thus, more accurate prediction locations are obtained. Using these locations, the KMF considerably improves fingerprinting algorithm performance. Experimental results demonstrate that the FNCC algorithm with reduced computational complexity outperforms other neighbor selection algorithms and the KMF effectively improves location sensing accuracy by using indoor map information and spatial proximities of consecutive localization results. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Physical Sensors)
Open AccessArticle Development of On-Line Monitoring Systems for High Temperature Components in Power Plants
Sensors 2013, 13(11), 15504-15512; https://doi.org/10.3390/s131115504
Received: 22 September 2013 / Revised: 23 October 2013 / Accepted: 23 October 2013 / Published: 13 November 2013
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2574 | PDF Full-text (583 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
To accurately detect deformation and extend the component life beyond the original design limits, structural safety monitoring techniques have attracted considerable attention in the power and process industries for decades. In this paper an on-line monitoring system for high temperature pipes in a [...] Read more.
To accurately detect deformation and extend the component life beyond the original design limits, structural safety monitoring techniques have attracted considerable attention in the power and process industries for decades. In this paper an on-line monitoring system for high temperature pipes in a power plant is developed. The extension-based sensing devices are amounted on straight pipes, T-Joints and elbows of a main steam pipeline. During on-site monitoring for more than two years, most of the sensors worked reliably and steadily. However, the direct strain gauge could not work for long periods because of the high temperature environment. Moreover, it is found that the installation and connection of the extensometers can have a significant influence on the measurement results. The on-line monitoring system has a good alarming function which is demonstrated by detecting a steam leakage of the header. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensors for Harsh-Environment Applications)
Open AccessArticle Evaluation of Stiffness Changes in a High-Rise Building by Measurements of Lateral Displacements Using GPS Technology
Sensors 2013, 13(11), 15489-15503; https://doi.org/10.3390/s131115489
Received: 14 August 2013 / Revised: 1 November 2013 / Accepted: 1 November 2013 / Published: 13 November 2013
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2654 | PDF Full-text (1255 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The outrigger truss system is one of the most frequently used lateral load resisting structural systems. However, little research has been reported on the effect of installation of outrigger trusses on improvement of lateral stiffness of a high-rise building through full-scale measurements. In [...] Read more.
The outrigger truss system is one of the most frequently used lateral load resisting structural systems. However, little research has been reported on the effect of installation of outrigger trusses on improvement of lateral stiffness of a high-rise building through full-scale measurements. In this paper, stiffness changes of a high-rise building due to installation of outrigger trusses have been evaluated by measuring lateral displacements using a global positioning system (GPS). To confirm the error range of the GPS measurement system used in the full-scale measurement tests, the GPS displacement monitoring system is investigated through a free vibration test of the experimental model. Then, for the evaluation of lateral stiffness of a high-rise building under construction, the GPS displacement monitoring system is applied to measurements of lateral displacements of a 66-story high-rise building before and after installation of outrigger truss. The stiffness improvement of the building before and after the installation is confirmed through the changes of the natural frequencies and the ratios of the base shear forces to the roof displacements. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Remote Sensors)
Open AccessArticle Accurate Estimation of Airborne Ultrasonic Time-of-Flight for Overlapping Echoes
Sensors 2013, 13(11), 15465-15488; https://doi.org/10.3390/s131115465
Received: 17 October 2013 / Revised: 5 November 2013 / Accepted: 7 November 2013 / Published: 12 November 2013
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2702 | PDF Full-text (3381 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this work, an analysis of the transmission of ultrasonic signals generated by piezoelectric sensors for air applications is presented. Based on this analysis, an ultrasonic response model is obtained for its application to the recognition of objects and structured environments for navigation [...] Read more.
In this work, an analysis of the transmission of ultrasonic signals generated by piezoelectric sensors for air applications is presented. Based on this analysis, an ultrasonic response model is obtained for its application to the recognition of objects and structured environments for navigation by autonomous mobile robots. This model enables the analysis of the ultrasonic response that is generated using a pair of sensors in transmitter-receiver configuration using the pulse-echo technique. This is very interesting for recognizing surfaces that simultaneously generate a multiple echo response. This model takes into account the effect of the radiation pattern, the resonant frequency of the sensor, the number of cycles of the excitation pulse, the dynamics of the sensor and the attenuation with distance in the medium. This model has been developed, programmed and verified through a battery of experimental tests. Using this model a new procedure for obtaining accurate time of flight is proposed. This new method is compared with traditional ones, such as threshold or correlation, to highlight its advantages and drawbacks. Finally the advantages of this method are demonstrated for calculating multiple times of flight when the echo is formed by several overlapping echoes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Physical Sensors)
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Open AccessArticle Performance of a Distributed Simultaneous Strain and Temperature Sensor Based on a Fabry-Perot Laser Diode and a Dual-Stage FBG Optical Demultiplexer
Sensors 2013, 13(11), 15452-15464; https://doi.org/10.3390/s131115452
Received: 17 September 2013 / Revised: 4 November 2013 / Accepted: 8 November 2013 / Published: 12 November 2013
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2698 | PDF Full-text (971 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A simultaneous strain and temperature measurement method using a Fabry-Perot laser diode (FP-LD) and a dual-stage fiber Bragg grating (FBG) optical demultiplexer was applied to a distributed sensor system based on Brillouin optical time domain reflectometry (BOTDR). By using a Kalman filter, we [...] Read more.
A simultaneous strain and temperature measurement method using a Fabry-Perot laser diode (FP-LD) and a dual-stage fiber Bragg grating (FBG) optical demultiplexer was applied to a distributed sensor system based on Brillouin optical time domain reflectometry (BOTDR). By using a Kalman filter, we improved the performance of the FP-LD based OTDR, and decreased the noise using the dual-stage FBG optical demultiplexer. Applying the two developed components to the BOTDR system and using a temperature compensating algorithm, we successfully demonstrated the simultaneous measurement of strain and temperature distributions under various experimental conditions. The observed errors in the temperature and strain measured using the developed sensing system were 0.6 °C and 50 με, and the spatial resolution was 1 m, respectively. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Photonic Sensors for Industrial, Environmental and Health Monitoring)
Open AccessArticle Process Mining for Individualized Behavior Modeling Using Wireless Tracking in Nursing Homes
Sensors 2013, 13(11), 15434-15451; https://doi.org/10.3390/s131115434
Received: 14 September 2013 / Revised: 30 October 2013 / Accepted: 4 November 2013 / Published: 11 November 2013
Cited by 28 | Viewed by 3601 | PDF Full-text (3427 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The analysis of human behavior patterns is increasingly used for several research fields. The individualized modeling of behavior using classical techniques requires too much time and resources to be effective. A possible solution would be the use of pattern recognition techniques to automatically [...] Read more.
The analysis of human behavior patterns is increasingly used for several research fields. The individualized modeling of behavior using classical techniques requires too much time and resources to be effective. A possible solution would be the use of pattern recognition techniques to automatically infer models to allow experts to understand individual behavior. However, traditional pattern recognition algorithms infer models that are not readily understood by human experts. This limits the capacity to benefit from the inferred models. Process mining technologies can infer models as workflows, specifically designed to be understood by experts, enabling them to detect specific behavior patterns in users. In this paper, the eMotiva process mining algorithms are presented. These algorithms filter, infer and visualize workflows. The workflows are inferred from the samples produced by an indoor location system that stores the location of a resident in a nursing home. The visualization tool is able to compare and highlight behavior patterns in order to facilitate expert understanding of human behavior. This tool was tested with nine real users that were monitored for a 25-week period. The results achieved suggest that the behavior of users is continuously evolving and changing and that this change can be measured, allowing for behavioral change detection. Full article
Open AccessReview Genetically Encoded Fluorescent Redox Probes
Sensors 2013, 13(11), 15422-15433; https://doi.org/10.3390/s131115422
Received: 19 October 2013 / Revised: 2 November 2013 / Accepted: 5 November 2013 / Published: 11 November 2013
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 2886 | PDF Full-text (593 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Redox processes are involved in almost every cell of the body as a consequence of aerobic life. In the past decades, redox biology has been increasingly recognized as one of the key themes in cell signaling. The progress has been accelerated by development [...] Read more.
Redox processes are involved in almost every cell of the body as a consequence of aerobic life. In the past decades, redox biology has been increasingly recognized as one of the key themes in cell signaling. The progress has been accelerated by development of fluorescent probes that can monitor redox conditions and dynamics in cells and cell compartments. This short paper focuses on fluorescent redox probes that are genetically encoded, and discusses their properties, molecular mechanism, advantages and pitfalls. Our recent work on reaction-based encoded probes that are responsive to particular redox signaling molecules is also reviewed. Future challenges and directions are also commented. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fluorescent Biosensors)
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Open AccessArticle Research on the Design of an Optical Information Storage Sensing System Using a Diffractive Optical Element
Sensors 2013, 13(11), 15409-15421; https://doi.org/10.3390/s131115409
Received: 22 September 2013 / Revised: 30 October 2013 / Accepted: 4 November 2013 / Published: 8 November 2013
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2830 | PDF Full-text (841 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper introduces a compact optical information storage sensing system. Applications of this system include longitudinal surface plasmon resonance detection of gold nanorods with a single femtosecond laser in three-dimensional space as well as data storage. A diffractive optical element (DOE) is applied [...] Read more.
This paper introduces a compact optical information storage sensing system. Applications of this system include longitudinal surface plasmon resonance detection of gold nanorods with a single femtosecond laser in three-dimensional space as well as data storage. A diffractive optical element (DOE) is applied in the system to separate the recording-reading beam from the servo beam. This allows us to apply a single laser and one objective lens in a single optical path for the servo beam and the recording-reading beam. The optical system has a linear region of 8 λ, which is compatible with current DVD servo modules. The wavefront error of the optical system is below 0.03 λrms. The minimum grating period of the DOE is 13.4 µm, and the depth of the DOE is 1.2 µm, which makes fabrication of it possible. The DOE is also designed to conveniently control the layer-selection process, as there is a linear correlation between the displacement of the DOE and the layer-selection distance. The displacement of DOE is in the range of 0–6.045 mm when the thickness of the layer-selection is 0.3 mm. Experiments were performed and the results have been verified. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanotube and Nanowire Sensors)
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Open AccessArticle Throughput and Energy Efficiency of a Cooperative Hybrid ARQ Protocol for Underwater Acoustic Sensor Networks
Sensors 2013, 13(11), 15385-15408; https://doi.org/10.3390/s131115385
Received: 26 September 2013 / Revised: 4 November 2013 / Accepted: 4 November 2013 / Published: 8 November 2013
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 3102 | PDF Full-text (620 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Due to its efficiency, reliability and better channel and resource utilization, cooperative transmission technologies have been attractive options in underwater as well as terrestrial sensor networks. Their performance can be further improved if merged with forward error correction (FEC) techniques. In this paper, [...] Read more.
Due to its efficiency, reliability and better channel and resource utilization, cooperative transmission technologies have been attractive options in underwater as well as terrestrial sensor networks. Their performance can be further improved if merged with forward error correction (FEC) techniques. In this paper, we propose and analyze a retransmission protocol named Cooperative-Hybrid Automatic Repeat reQuest (C-HARQ) for underwater acoustic sensor networks, which exploits both the reliability of cooperative ARQ (CARQ) and the efficiency of incremental redundancy-hybrid ARQ (IR-HARQ) using rate-compatible punctured convolution (RCPC) codes. Extensive Monte Carlo simulations are performed to investigate the performance of the protocol, in terms of both throughput and energy efficiency. The results clearly reveal the enhancement in performance achieved by the C-HARQ protocol, which outperforms both CARQ and conventional stop and wait ARQ (S&W ARQ). Further, using computer simulations, optimum values of various network parameters are estimated so as to extract the best performance out of the C-HARQ protocol. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Sensor Networks)
Open AccessArticle Improving Management Performance of P2PSIP for Mobile Sensing in Wireless Overlays
Sensors 2013, 13(11), 15364-15384; https://doi.org/10.3390/s131115364
Received: 5 August 2013 / Revised: 9 October 2013 / Accepted: 1 November 2013 / Published: 8 November 2013
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2235 | PDF Full-text (307 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Future wireless communications are heading towards an all-Internet Protocol (all-IP) design, and will rely on the Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) to manage services, such as voice over IP (VoIP). The centralized architecture of traditional SIP has numerous disadvantages for mobile ad hoc services [...] Read more.
Future wireless communications are heading towards an all-Internet Protocol (all-IP) design, and will rely on the Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) to manage services, such as voice over IP (VoIP). The centralized architecture of traditional SIP has numerous disadvantages for mobile ad hoc services that may be possibly overcome by advanced peer-to-peer (P2P) technologies initially developed for the Internet. In the context of mobile sensing, P2PSIP protocols facilitate decentralized and fast communications with sensor-enabled terminals. Nevertheless, in order to make P2PSIP protocols feasible in mobile sensing networks, it is necessary to minimize overhead transmissions for signaling purposes, which reduces the battery lifetime. In this paper, we present a solution to improve the management of wireless overlay networks by defining an adaptive algorithm for the calculation of refresh time. The main advantage of the proposed algorithm is that it takes into account new parameters, such as the delay between nodes, and provides satisfactory performance and reliability levels at a much lower management overhead than previous approaches. The proposed solution can be applied to many structured P2P overlays or P2PSIP protocols. We evaluate it with Kademlia-based distributed hash tables (DHT) and dSIP. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Sensor Networks)
Open AccessArticle Label-Enhanced Surface Plasmon Resonance: A New Concept for Improved Performance in Optical Biosensor Analysis
Sensors 2013, 13(11), 15348-15363; https://doi.org/10.3390/s131115348
Received: 20 September 2013 / Revised: 29 October 2013 / Accepted: 2 November 2013 / Published: 8 November 2013
Cited by 21 | Viewed by 3910 | PDF Full-text (461 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) is a well-established optical biosensor technology with many proven applications in the study of molecular interactions as well as in surface and material science. SPR is usually applied in the label-free mode which may be advantageous in cases where [...] Read more.
Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) is a well-established optical biosensor technology with many proven applications in the study of molecular interactions as well as in surface and material science. SPR is usually applied in the label-free mode which may be advantageous in cases where the presence of a label may potentially interfere with the studied interactions per se. However, the fundamental challenges of label-free SPR in terms of limited sensitivity and specificity are well known. Here we present a new concept called label-enhanced SPR, which is based on utilizing strongly absorbing dye molecules in combination with the evaluation of the full shape of the SPR curve, whereby the sensitivity as well as the specificity of SPR is significantly improved. The performance of the new label-enhanced SPR method was demonstrated by two simple model assays: a small molecule assay and a DNA hybridization assay. The small molecule assay was used to demonstrate the sensitivity enhancement of the method, and how competitive assays can be used for relative affinity determination. The DNA assay was used to demonstrate the selectivity of the assay, and the capabilities in eliminating noise from bulk liquid composition variations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plasmonics and Nanoplasmonics Biosensors)
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