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Sensors, Volume 11, Issue 10 (October 2011) , Pages 9121-10009

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Open AccessArticle
Collaborative Localization Algorithms for Wireless Sensor Networks with Reduced Localization Error
Sensors 2011, 11(10), 9989-10009; https://doi.org/10.3390/s111009989 - 21 Oct 2011
Cited by 24 | Viewed by 4019
Abstract
Localization is an important research issue in Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs). Though Global Positioning System (GPS) can be used to locate the position of the sensors, unfortunately it is limited to outdoor applications and is costly and power consuming. In order to find [...] Read more.
Localization is an important research issue in Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs). Though Global Positioning System (GPS) can be used to locate the position of the sensors, unfortunately it is limited to outdoor applications and is costly and power consuming. In order to find location of sensor nodes without help of GPS, collaboration among nodes is highly essential so that localization can be accomplished efficiently. In this paper, novel localization algorithms are proposed to find out possible location information of the normal nodes in a collaborative manner for an outdoor environment with help of few beacons and anchor nodes. In our localization scheme, at most three beacon nodes should be collaborated to find out the accurate location information of any normal node. Besides, analytical methods are designed to calculate and reduce the localization error using probability distribution function. Performance evaluation of our algorithm shows that there is a trade off betweendeployed number of beacon nodes and localization error, and average localization time of the network can be increased with increase in the number of normal nodes deployed over a region. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Collaborative Sensors)
Open AccessArticle
Application of Terahertz Radiation to Soil Measurements: Initial Results
Sensors 2011, 11(10), 9973-9988; https://doi.org/10.3390/s111009973 - 21 Oct 2011
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 4838
Abstract
Developing soil sensors with the possibility of continuous online measurement is a major challenge in soil science. Terahertz (THz) electromagnetic radiation may provide the opportunity for the measurement of organic material density, water content and other soil parameters at different soil depths. Penetration [...] Read more.
Developing soil sensors with the possibility of continuous online measurement is a major challenge in soil science. Terahertz (THz) electromagnetic radiation may provide the opportunity for the measurement of organic material density, water content and other soil parameters at different soil depths. Penetration depth and information content is important for a functional soil sensor. Therefore, we present initial research on the analysis of absorption coefficients of four different soil samples by means of THz transmission measurements. An optimized soil sample holder to determine absorption coefficients was used. This setup improves data acquisition because interface reflections can be neglected. Frequencies of 340 GHz to 360 GHz and 1.627 THz to 2.523 THz provided information about an existing frequency dependency. The results demonstrate the potential of this THz approach for both soil analysis and imaging of buried objects. Therefore, the THz approach allows different soil samples to be distinguished according to their different absorption properties so that relations among soil parameters may be established in future. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Physical Sensors)
Open AccessArticle
Enzyme-Polymers Conjugated to Quantum-Dots for Sensing Applications
Sensors 2011, 11(10), 9951-9972; https://doi.org/10.3390/s111009951 - 21 Oct 2011
Cited by 33 | Viewed by 5192
Abstract
In the present research, the concept of developing a novel system based on polymer-enzyme macromolecules was tested by coupling carboxylic acid functionalized poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA-COOH) to glucose oxidase (GOx) followed by the bioconjugation with CdS quantum-dots (QD). The resulting organic-inorganic nanohybrids were characterized [...] Read more.
In the present research, the concept of developing a novel system based on polymer-enzyme macromolecules was tested by coupling carboxylic acid functionalized poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA-COOH) to glucose oxidase (GOx) followed by the bioconjugation with CdS quantum-dots (QD). The resulting organic-inorganic nanohybrids were characterized by UV-visible spectroscopy, infrared spectroscopy, Photoluminescence spectroscopy (PL) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The spectroscopy results have clearly shown that the polymer-enzyme macromolecules (PVA-COOH/GOx) were synthesized by the proposed zero-length linker route. Moreover, they have performed as successful capping agents for the nucleation and constrained growth of CdS quantum-dots via aqueous colloidal chemistry. The TEM images associated with the optical absorption results have indicated the formation of CdS nanocrystals with estimated diameters of about 3.0 nm. The “blue-shift” in the visible absorption spectra and the PL values have provided strong evidence that the fluorescent CdS nanoparticles were produced in the quantum-size confinement regime. Finally, the hybrid system was biochemically assayed by injecting the glucose substrate and detecting the formation of peroxide with the enzyme horseradish peroxidase (HRP). Thus, the polymer-enzyme-QD hybrid has behaved as a nanostructured sensor for glucose detecting. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensing with Quantum Dots)
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Open AccessArticle
In Situ Monitoring of Temperature inside Lithium-Ion Batteries by Flexible Micro Temperature Sensors
Sensors 2011, 11(10), 9942-9950; https://doi.org/10.3390/s111009942 - 21 Oct 2011
Cited by 46 | Viewed by 4602
Abstract
Lithium-ion secondary batteries are commonly used in electric vehicles, smart phones, personal digital assistants (PDA), notebooks and electric cars. These lithium-ion secondary batteries must charge and discharge rapidly, causing the interior temperature to rise quickly, raising a safety issue. Over-charging results in an [...] Read more.
Lithium-ion secondary batteries are commonly used in electric vehicles, smart phones, personal digital assistants (PDA), notebooks and electric cars. These lithium-ion secondary batteries must charge and discharge rapidly, causing the interior temperature to rise quickly, raising a safety issue. Over-charging results in an unstable voltage and current, causing potential safety problems, such as thermal runaways and explosions. Thus, a micro flexible temperature sensor for the in in-situ monitoring of temperature inside a lithium-ion secondary battery must be developed. In this work, flexible micro temperature sensors were integrated into a lithium-ion secondary battery using the micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) process for monitoring temperature in situ. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Physical Sensors)
Open AccessArticle
Fault Diagnosis for Micro-Gas Turbine Engine Sensors via Wavelet Entropy
Sensors 2011, 11(10), 9928-9941; https://doi.org/10.3390/s111009928 - 21 Oct 2011
Cited by 16 | Viewed by 3904
Abstract
Sensor fault diagnosis is necessary to ensure the normal operation of a gas turbine system. However, the existing methods require too many resources and this need can’t be satisfied in some occasions. Since the sensor readings are directly affected by sensor state, sensor [...] Read more.
Sensor fault diagnosis is necessary to ensure the normal operation of a gas turbine system. However, the existing methods require too many resources and this need can’t be satisfied in some occasions. Since the sensor readings are directly affected by sensor state, sensor fault diagnosis can be performed by extracting features of the measured signals. This paper proposes a novel fault diagnosis method for sensors based on wavelet entropy. Based on the wavelet theory, wavelet decomposition is utilized to decompose the signal in different scales. Then the instantaneous wavelet energy entropy (IWEE) and instantaneous wavelet singular entropy (IWSE) are defined based on the previous wavelet entropy theory. Subsequently, a fault diagnosis method for gas turbine sensors is proposed based on the results of a numerically simulated example. Then, experiments on this method are carried out on a real micro gas turbine engine. In the experiment, four types of faults with different magnitudes are presented. The experimental results show that the proposed method for sensor fault diagnosis is efficient. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Physical Sensors)
Open AccessArticle
Coverage Assessment and Target Tracking in 3D Domains
Sensors 2011, 11(10), 9904-9927; https://doi.org/10.3390/s111009904 - 20 Oct 2011
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 3983
Abstract
Recent advances in integrated electronic devices motivated the use of Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) in many applications including domain surveillance and mobile target tracking, where a number of sensors are scattered within a sensitive region to detect the presence of intruders and forward [...] Read more.
Recent advances in integrated electronic devices motivated the use of Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) in many applications including domain surveillance and mobile target tracking, where a number of sensors are scattered within a sensitive region to detect the presence of intruders and forward related events to some analysis center(s). Obviously, sensor deployment should guarantee an optimal event detection rate and should reduce coverage holes. Most of the coverage control approaches proposed in the literature deal with two-dimensional zones and do not develop strategies to handle coverage in three-dimensional domains, which is becoming a requirement for many applications including water monitoring, indoor surveillance, and projectile tracking. This paper proposes efficient techniques to detect coverage holes in a 3D domain using a finite set of sensors, repair the holes, and track hostile targets. To this end, we use the concepts of Voronoi tessellation, Vietoris complex, and retract by deformation. We show in particular that, through a set of iterative transformations of the Vietoris complex corresponding to the deployed sensors, the number of coverage holes can be computed with a low complexity. Mobility strategies are also proposed to repair holes by moving appropriately sensors towards the uncovered zones. The tracking objective is to set a non-uniform WSN coverage within the monitored domain to allow detecting the target(s) by the set of sensors. We show, in particular, how the proposed algorithms adapt to cope with obstacles. Simulation experiments are carried out to analyze the efficiency of the proposed models. To our knowledge, repairing and tracking is addressed for the first time in 3D spaces with different sensor coverage schemes. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Cooperative MIMO Communication at Wireless Sensor Network: An Error Correcting Code Approach
Sensors 2011, 11(10), 9887-9903; https://doi.org/10.3390/s111009887 - 20 Oct 2011
Cited by 18 | Viewed by 4053
Abstract
Cooperative communication in wireless sensor network (WSN) explores the energy efficient wireless communication schemes between multiple sensors and data gathering node (DGN) by exploiting multiple input multiple output (MIMO) and multiple input single output (MISO) configurations. In this paper, an energy efficient cooperative [...] Read more.
Cooperative communication in wireless sensor network (WSN) explores the energy efficient wireless communication schemes between multiple sensors and data gathering node (DGN) by exploiting multiple input multiple output (MIMO) and multiple input single output (MISO) configurations. In this paper, an energy efficient cooperative MIMO (C-MIMO) technique is proposed where low density parity check (LDPC) code is used as an error correcting code. The rate of LDPC code is varied by varying the length of message and parity bits. Simulation results show that the cooperative communication scheme outperforms SISO scheme in the presence of LDPC code. LDPC codes with different code rates are compared using bit error rate (BER) analysis. BER is also analyzed under different Nakagami fading scenario. Energy efficiencies are compared for different targeted probability of bit error pb. It is observed that C-MIMO performs more efficiently when the targeted pb is smaller. Also the lower encoding rate for LDPC code offers better error characteristics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selected Papers from FGIT 2010)
Open AccessArticle
Development and Evaluation of a Miniaturized Taste Sensor Chip
Sensors 2011, 11(10), 9878-9886; https://doi.org/10.3390/s111009878 - 20 Oct 2011
Cited by 17 | Viewed by 4180
Abstract
A miniaturized taste sensor chip was designed for use in a portable-type taste sensing system. The fabricated sensor chip (40 mm × 26 mm × 2.2 mm) has multiple taste-sensing sites consisting of a poly(hydroxyethyl methacrylate) hydrogel with KCl as the electrolyte layer [...] Read more.
A miniaturized taste sensor chip was designed for use in a portable-type taste sensing system. The fabricated sensor chip (40 mm × 26 mm × 2.2 mm) has multiple taste-sensing sites consisting of a poly(hydroxyethyl methacrylate) hydrogel with KCl as the electrolyte layer for stability of the membrane potential and artificial lipid membranes as the taste sensing elements. The sensor responses to the standard taste substances showed high accuracy and good reproducibility, which is comparable with the performance of the sensor probe of the commercialized taste sensing system. Thus, the fabricated taste sensor chip could be used as a key element for the realization of a portable-type taste sensing system. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ultra-Small Sensor Systems and Components)
Open AccessArticle
An Approach for Removing Redundant Data from RFID Data Streams
Sensors 2011, 11(10), 9863-9877; https://doi.org/10.3390/s111009863 - 20 Oct 2011
Cited by 23 | Viewed by 3507
Abstract
Radio frequency identification (RFID) systems are emerging as the primary object identification mechanism, especially in supply chain management. However, RFID naturally generates a large amount of duplicate readings. Removing these duplicates from the RFID data stream is paramount as it does not contribute [...] Read more.
Radio frequency identification (RFID) systems are emerging as the primary object identification mechanism, especially in supply chain management. However, RFID naturally generates a large amount of duplicate readings. Removing these duplicates from the RFID data stream is paramount as it does not contribute new information to the system and wastes system resources. Existing approaches to deal with this problem cannot fulfill the real time demands to process the massive RFID data stream. We propose a data filtering approach that efficiently detects and removes duplicate readings from RFID data streams. Experimental results show that the proposed approach offers a significant improvement as compared to the existing approaches. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selected Papers from FGIT 2010)
Open AccessArticle
A Multi-Sensorial Hybrid Control for Robotic Manipulation in Human-Robot Workspaces
Sensors 2011, 11(10), 9839-9862; https://doi.org/10.3390/s111009839 - 20 Oct 2011
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 4235
Abstract
Autonomous manipulation in semi-structured environments where human operators can interact is an increasingly common task in robotic applications. This paper describes an intelligent multi-sensorial approach that solves this issue by providing a multi-robotic platform with a high degree of autonomy and the capability [...] Read more.
Autonomous manipulation in semi-structured environments where human operators can interact is an increasingly common task in robotic applications. This paper describes an intelligent multi-sensorial approach that solves this issue by providing a multi-robotic platform with a high degree of autonomy and the capability to perform complex tasks. The proposed sensorial system is composed of a hybrid visual servo control to efficiently guide the robot towards the object to be manipulated, an inertial motion capture system and an indoor localization system to avoid possible collisions between human operators and robots working in the same workspace, and a tactile sensor algorithm to correctly manipulate the object. The proposed controller employs the whole multi-sensorial system and combines the measurements of each one of the used sensors during two different phases considered in the robot task: a first phase where the robot approaches the object to be grasped, and a second phase of manipulation of the object. In both phases, the unexpected presence of humans is taken into account. This paper also presents the successful results obtained in several experimental setups which verify the validity of the proposed approach. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Collaborative Sensors)
Open AccessArticle
Sonic Anemometry to Measure Natural Ventilation in Greenhouses
Sensors 2011, 11(10), 9820-9838; https://doi.org/10.3390/s111009820 - 19 Oct 2011
Cited by 20 | Viewed by 4147
Abstract
The present work has developed a methodology for studying natural ventilation in Mediterranean greenhouses by means of sonic anemometry. In addition, specific calculation programmes have been designed to enable processing and analysis of the data recorded during the experiments. Sonic anemometry allows us [...] Read more.
The present work has developed a methodology for studying natural ventilation in Mediterranean greenhouses by means of sonic anemometry. In addition, specific calculation programmes have been designed to enable processing and analysis of the data recorded during the experiments. Sonic anemometry allows us to study the direction of the airflow at all the greenhouse vents. Knowing through which vents the air enters and leaves the greenhouse enables us to establish the airflow pattern of the greenhouse under natural ventilation conditions. In the greenhouse analysed in this work for Poniente wind (from the southwest), a roof vent designed to open towards the North (leeward) could allow a positive interaction between the wind and stack effects, improving the ventilation capacity of the greenhouse. The cooling effect produced by the mass of turbulent air oscillating between inside and outside the greenhouse at the side vents was limited to 2% (for high wind speed, uo ≥ 4 m s−1) reaching 36.3% when wind speed was lower (uo = 2 m s−1). Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Physical Sensors)
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Open AccessArticle
Support Loss and Q Factor Enhancement for a Rocking Mass Microgyroscope
Sensors 2011, 11(10), 9807-9819; https://doi.org/10.3390/s111009807 - 19 Oct 2011
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 3340
Abstract
A rocking mass gyroscope (RMG) is a kind of vibrating mass gyroscope with high sensitivity, whose driving mode and sensing mode are completely uniform. MEMS RMG devices are a research hotspot now because they have the potential to be used in space applications. [...] Read more.
A rocking mass gyroscope (RMG) is a kind of vibrating mass gyroscope with high sensitivity, whose driving mode and sensing mode are completely uniform. MEMS RMG devices are a research hotspot now because they have the potential to be used in space applications. Support loss is the dominant energy loss mechanism influencing their high sensitivity. An accurate analytical model of support loss for RMGs is presented to enhance their Q factors. The anchor type and support loss mechanism of an RMG are analyzed. Firstly, the support loads, powers flowing into support structure, and vibration energy of an RMG are all developed. Then the analytical model of support loss for the RMG is developed, and its sensitivities to the main structural parameters are also analyzed. High-Q design guidelines for rocking mass microgyroscopes are deduced. Finally, the analytical model is validated by the experimental data and the data from the existing literature. The thicknesses of the prototypes are reduced from 240 µm to 60 µm, while Q factors increase from less than 150 to more than 800. The derived model is general and applicable to various beam resonators, providing significant insight to the design of high-Q MEMS devices. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Physical Sensors)
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Open AccessArticle
Manufacture and Characterization of High Q-Factor Inductors Based on CMOS-MEMS Techniques
Sensors 2011, 11(10), 9798-9806; https://doi.org/10.3390/s111009798 - 19 Oct 2011
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 3700
Abstract
A high Q-factor (quality-factor) spiral inductor fabricated by the CMOS (complementary metal oxide semiconductor) process and a post-process was investigated. The spiral inductor is manufactured on a silicon substrate. A post-process is used to remove the underlying silicon substrate in order to reduce [...] Read more.
A high Q-factor (quality-factor) spiral inductor fabricated by the CMOS (complementary metal oxide semiconductor) process and a post-process was investigated. The spiral inductor is manufactured on a silicon substrate. A post-process is used to remove the underlying silicon substrate in order to reduce the substrate loss and to enhance the Q-factor of the inductor. The post-process adopts RIE (reactive ion etching) to etch the sacrificial oxide layer, and then TMAH (tetramethylammonium hydroxide) is employed to remove the silicon substrate for obtaining the suspended spiral inductor. The advantage of this post-processing method is its compatibility with the CMOS process. The performance of the spiral inductor is measured by an Agilent 8510C network analyzer and a Cascade probe station. Experimental results show that the Q-factor and inductance of the spiral inductor are 15 at 15 GHz and 1.8 nH at 1 GHz, respectively. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Modeling, Testing and Reliability Issues in MEMS Engineering 2011)
Open AccessReview
Local Positioning Systems in (Game) Sports
Sensors 2011, 11(10), 9778-9797; https://doi.org/10.3390/s111009778 - 19 Oct 2011
Cited by 39 | Viewed by 4159
Abstract
Position data of players and athletes are widely used in sports performance analysis for measuring the amounts of physical activities as well as for tactical assessments in game sports. However, positioning sensing systems are applied in sports as tools to gain objective information [...] Read more.
Position data of players and athletes are widely used in sports performance analysis for measuring the amounts of physical activities as well as for tactical assessments in game sports. However, positioning sensing systems are applied in sports as tools to gain objective information of sports behavior rather than as components of intelligent spaces (IS). The paper outlines the idea of IS for the sports context with special focus to game sports and how intelligent sports feedback systems can benefit from IS. Henceforth, the most common location sensing techniques used in sports and their practical application are reviewed, as location is among the most important enabling techniques for IS. Furthermore, the article exemplifies the idea of IS in sports on two applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensorial Systems Applied to Intelligent Spaces)
Open AccessArticle
Investigation of Digital Sun Sensor Technology with an N-Shaped Slit Mask
Sensors 2011, 11(10), 9764-9777; https://doi.org/10.3390/s111009764 - 18 Oct 2011
Cited by 17 | Viewed by 4221
Abstract
Nowadays sun sensors are being more widely used in satellites to determine the sunray orientation, thus development of a new version of sun sensor with lighter mass, lower power consumption and smaller size it of considerable interest. This paper introduces such a novel [...] Read more.
Nowadays sun sensors are being more widely used in satellites to determine the sunray orientation, thus development of a new version of sun sensor with lighter mass, lower power consumption and smaller size it of considerable interest. This paper introduces such a novel digital sun sensor, which is composed of a micro-electro-mechanical system (MEMS) mask with an N-shaped slit as well as a single linear array charge-coupled device (CCD). The sun sensor can achieve the measurement of two-axis sunray angles according to the three sun spot images on the CCD formed by sun light illumination through the mask. Given the CCD glass layer, an iterative algorithm is established to correct the refraction error. Thus, system resolution, update rate and other characteristics are improved based on the model simulation and system design. The test of sun sensor prototype is carried out on a three-axis rotating platform with a sun simulator. The test results show that the field of view (FOV) is ±60° × ±60° and the accuracy is 0.08 degrees of arc (3σ) in the whole FOV. Since the power consumption of the prototype is only 300 mW and the update rate is 14 Hz, the novel digital sun sensor can be applied broadly in micro/nano-satellites, even pico-satellites. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Physical Sensors)
Open AccessReview
Biosensing with Quantum Dots: A Microfluidic Approach
Sensors 2011, 11(10), 9732-9763; https://doi.org/10.3390/s111009732 - 18 Oct 2011
Cited by 37 | Viewed by 6155
Abstract
Semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) have served as the basis for signal development in a variety of biosensing technologies and in applications using bioprobes. The use of QDs as physical platforms to develop biosensors and bioprobes has attracted considerable interest. This is largely due [...] Read more.
Semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) have served as the basis for signal development in a variety of biosensing technologies and in applications using bioprobes. The use of QDs as physical platforms to develop biosensors and bioprobes has attracted considerable interest. This is largely due to the unique optical properties of QDs that make them excellent choices as donors in fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) and well suited for optical multiplexing. The large majority of QD-based bioprobe and biosensing technologies that have been described operate in bulk solution environments, where selective binding events at the surface of QDs are often associated with relatively long periods to reach a steady-state signal. An alternative approach to the design of biosensor architectures may be provided by a microfluidic system (MFS). A MFS is able to integrate chemical and biological processes into a single platform and allows for manipulation of flow conditions to achieve, by sample transport and mixing, reaction rates that are not entirely diffusion controlled. Integrating assays in a MFS provides numerous additional advantages, which include the use of very small amounts of reagents and samples, possible sample processing before detection, ultra-high sensitivity, high throughput, short analysis time, and in situ monitoring. Herein, a comprehensive review is provided that addresses the key concepts and applications of QD-based microfluidic biosensors with an added emphasis on how this combination of technologies provides for innovations in bioassay designs. Examples from the literature are used to highlight the many advantages of biosensing in a MFS and illustrate the versatility that such a platform offers in the design strategy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensing with Quantum Dots)
Open AccessArticle
Authenticity Preservation with Histogram-Based Reversible Data Hiding and Quadtree Concepts
Sensors 2011, 11(10), 9717-9731; https://doi.org/10.3390/s111009717 - 13 Oct 2011
Cited by 42 | Viewed by 3443
Abstract
With the widespread use of identification systems, establishing authenticity with sensors has become an important research issue. Among the schemes for making authenticity verification based on information security possible, reversible data hiding has attracted much attention during the past few years. With its [...] Read more.
With the widespread use of identification systems, establishing authenticity with sensors has become an important research issue. Among the schemes for making authenticity verification based on information security possible, reversible data hiding has attracted much attention during the past few years. With its characteristics of reversibility, the scheme is required to fulfill the goals from two aspects. On the one hand, at the encoder, the secret information needs to be embedded into the original image by some algorithms, such that the output image will resemble the input one as much as possible. On the other hand, at the decoder, both the secret information and the original image must be correctly extracted and recovered, and they should be identical to their embedding counterparts. Under the requirement of reversibility, for evaluating the performance of the data hiding algorithm, the output image quality, named imperceptibility, and the number of bits for embedding, called capacity, are the two key factors to access the effectiveness of the algorithm. Besides, the size of side information for making decoding possible should also be evaluated. Here we consider using the characteristics of original images for developing our method with better performance. In this paper, we propose an algorithm that has the ability to provide more capacity than conventional algorithms, with similar output image quality after embedding, and comparable side information produced. Simulation results demonstrate the applicability and better performance of our algorithm. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selected Papers from FGIT 2010)
Open AccessArticle
Coexistence of WiFi and WiMAX Systems Based on PS-Request Protocols
Sensors 2011, 11(10), 9700-9716; https://doi.org/10.3390/s111009700 - 13 Oct 2011
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 3653
Abstract
We introduce both the coexistence zone within the WiMAX frame structure and a PS-Request protocol for the coexistence of WiFi and WiMAX systems sharing a frequency band. Because we know that the PS-Request protocol has drawbacks, we propose a revised PS-Request protocol to [...] Read more.
We introduce both the coexistence zone within the WiMAX frame structure and a PS-Request protocol for the coexistence of WiFi and WiMAX systems sharing a frequency band. Because we know that the PS-Request protocol has drawbacks, we propose a revised PS-Request protocol to improve the performance. Two PS-Request protocols are based on the time division operation (TDO) of WiFi system and WiMAX system to avoid the mutual interference, and use the vestigial power management (PwrMgt) bit within the Frame Control field of the frames transmitted by a WiFi AP. The performance of the revised PS-Request protocol is evaluated by computer simulation, and compared to those of the cases without a coexistence protocol and to the original PS-Request protocol. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selected Papers from FGIT 2010)
Open AccessArticle
Design of Highly Sensitive C2H5OH Sensors Using Self-Assembled ZnO Nanostructures
Sensors 2011, 11(10), 9685-9699; https://doi.org/10.3390/s111009685 - 12 Oct 2011
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 4551
Abstract
Various ZnO nanostructures such as porous nanorods and two hierarchical structures consisting of porous nanosheets or crystalline nanorods were prepared by the reaction of mixtures of oleic-acid-dissolved ethanol solutions and aqueous dissolved Zn-precursor solutions in the presence of NaOH. All three ZnO nanostructures [...] Read more.
Various ZnO nanostructures such as porous nanorods and two hierarchical structures consisting of porous nanosheets or crystalline nanorods were prepared by the reaction of mixtures of oleic-acid-dissolved ethanol solutions and aqueous dissolved Zn-precursor solutions in the presence of NaOH. All three ZnO nanostructures showed sensitive and selective detection of C2H5OH. In particular, ultra-high responses (Ra/Rg = ~1,200, Ra: resistance in air, Rg: resistance in gas) to 100 ppm C2H5OH was attained using porous nanorods and hierarchical structures assembled from porous nanosheets, which is one of the highest values reported in the literature. The gas response and linearity of gas sensors were discussed in relation to the size, surface area, and porosity of the nanostructures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensing at the Nano-Scale: Chemical and Bio-Sensing)
Open AccessArticle
Terbium to Quantum Dot FRET Bioconjugates for Clinical Diagnostics: Influence of Human Plasma on Optical and Assembly Properties
Sensors 2011, 11(10), 9667-9684; https://doi.org/10.3390/s111009667 - 12 Oct 2011
Cited by 27 | Viewed by 7657
Abstract
Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) from luminescent terbium complexes (LTC) as donors to semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) as acceptors allows extraordinary large FRET efficiencies due to the long Förster distances afforded. Moreover, time-gated detection permits an efficient suppression of autofluorescent background leading to [...] Read more.
Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) from luminescent terbium complexes (LTC) as donors to semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) as acceptors allows extraordinary large FRET efficiencies due to the long Förster distances afforded. Moreover, time-gated detection permits an efficient suppression of autofluorescent background leading to sub-picomolar detection limits even within multiplexed detection formats. These characteristics make FRET-systems with LTC and QDs excellent candidates for clinical diagnostics. So far, such proofs of principle for highly sensitive multiplexed biosensing have only been performed under optimized buffer conditions and interactions between real-life clinical media such as human serum or plasma and LTC-QD-FRET-systems have not yet been taken into account. Here we present an extensive spectroscopic analysis of absorption, excitation and emission spectra along with the luminescence decay times of both the single components as well as the assembled FRET-systems in TRIS-buffer, TRIS-buffer with 2% bovine serum albumin, and fresh human plasma. Moreover, we evaluated homogeneous LTC-QD FRET assays in QD conjugates assembled with either the well-known, specific biotin-streptavidin biological interaction or, alternatively, the metal-affinity coordination of histidine to zinc. In the case of conjugates assembled with biotin-streptavidin no significant interference with the optical and binding properties occurs whereas the histidine-zinc system appears to be affected by human plasma. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensing with Quantum Dots)
Open AccessArticle
Numerical Optimization of a Microfluidic Assisted Microarray for the Detection of Biochemical Interactions
Sensors 2011, 11(10), 9658-9666; https://doi.org/10.3390/s111009658 - 12 Oct 2011
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2964
Abstract
Finite element method analysis was applied to the characterization of the biomolecular interactions taking place in a microfluidic assisted microarray. Numerical simulations have been used for the optimization of geometrical and physical parameters of the sensing device. Different configurations have been analyzed and [...] Read more.
Finite element method analysis was applied to the characterization of the biomolecular interactions taking place in a microfluidic assisted microarray. Numerical simulations have been used for the optimization of geometrical and physical parameters of the sensing device. Different configurations have been analyzed and general considerations have been derived. We have shown that a parallel disposition of the sensing area allows the homogeneous formation of the target molecular complex in all the active zones of the microarray. Stationary and time dependent results have also been obtained. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biosensors)
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Open AccessArticle
Adaptive Road Crack Detection System by Pavement Classification
Sensors 2011, 11(10), 9628-9657; https://doi.org/10.3390/s111009628 - 12 Oct 2011
Cited by 113 | Viewed by 7566
Abstract
This paper presents a road distress detection system involving the phases needed to properly deal with fully automatic road distress assessment. A vehicle equipped with line scan cameras, laser illumination and acquisition HW-SW is used to storage the digital images that will be [...] Read more.
This paper presents a road distress detection system involving the phases needed to properly deal with fully automatic road distress assessment. A vehicle equipped with line scan cameras, laser illumination and acquisition HW-SW is used to storage the digital images that will be further processed to identify road cracks. Pre-processing is firstly carried out to both smooth the texture and enhance the linear features. Non-crack features detection is then applied to mask areas of the images with joints, sealed cracks and white painting, that usually generate false positive cracking. A seed-based approach is proposed to deal with road crack detection, combining Multiple Directional Non-Minimum Suppression (MDNMS) with a symmetry check. Seeds are linked by computing the paths with the lowest cost that meet the symmetry restrictions. The whole detection process involves the use of several parameters. A correct setting becomes essential to get optimal results without manual intervention. A fully automatic approach by means of a linear SVM-based classifier ensemble able to distinguish between up to 10 different types of pavement that appear in the Spanish roads is proposed. The optimal feature vector includes different texture-based features. The parameters are then tuned depending on the output provided by the classifier. Regarding non-crack features detection, results show that the introduction of such module reduces the impact of false positives due to non-crack features up to a factor of 2. In addition, the observed performance of the crack detection system is significantly boosted by adapting the parameters to the type of pavement. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Physical Sensors)
Open AccessArticle
Cell Docking, Movement and Cell-Cell Interactions of Heterogeneous Cell Suspensions in a Cell Manipulation Microdevice
Sensors 2011, 11(10), 9613-9627; https://doi.org/10.3390/s111009613 - 12 Oct 2011
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 4419
Abstract
This study demonstrates a novel cell manipulation microdevice for cell docking, culturing, cell-cell contact and interaction by microfluidic manipulation of heterogeneous cell suspensions. Heterogeneous cell suspensions include disparate blood cells of natural killer cells and leukemia cancer cells for immune cell transplantation therapy. [...] Read more.
This study demonstrates a novel cell manipulation microdevice for cell docking, culturing, cell-cell contact and interaction by microfluidic manipulation of heterogeneous cell suspensions. Heterogeneous cell suspensions include disparate blood cells of natural killer cells and leukemia cancer cells for immune cell transplantation therapy. However, NK cell alloreactivity from different healthy donors present various recovery response levels. Little is still known about the interactions and cytotoxicity effects between donor NK cells and recipient cancer cells. The cell-based micro device first showed the capability of cell docking, movement, contact and cell-cell interaction with respect to cell cytotoxicity of NK cells against cancer cells. With various flow tests for live cell loading, flow rates of 10 μL/h were chosen for injection in the central and side flows such that both types of suspension cells could be gently docked at the gap structure in a reaction zone. The trapping number of particles and cells was linearly proportional to the gap length. Finally, the cytotoxicity of around 40% was found to be similar in the case of dilute cells and a large cell population. As a result, the cell manipulation microdevice has been validated for live suspensions of natural killer and cancer cells, and exhibited the capability to measure the cytotoxicity of dilute cell suspensions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Live Cell-Based Sensors)
Open AccessArticle
Intercomparisons of Nine Sky Brightness Detectors
Sensors 2011, 11(10), 9603-9612; https://doi.org/10.3390/s111009603 - 11 Oct 2011
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 5521
Abstract
Nine Sky Quality Meters (SQMs) have been intercompared during a night time measurement campaign held in the Netherlands in April 2011. Since then the nine SQMs have been distributed across the Netherlands and form the Dutch network for monitoring night sky brightness. The [...] Read more.
Nine Sky Quality Meters (SQMs) have been intercompared during a night time measurement campaign held in the Netherlands in April 2011. Since then the nine SQMs have been distributed across the Netherlands and form the Dutch network for monitoring night sky brightness. The goal of the intercomparison was to infer mutual calibration factors and obtain insight into the variability of the SQMs under different meteorological situations. An ensemble average is built from the individual measurements and used as a reference to infer the mutual calibration factors. Data required additional synchronization prior to the calibration determination, because the effect of moving clouds combined with small misalignments emerges as time jitter in the measurements. Initial scatter of the individual instruments lies between ±14%. Individual night time sums range from −16% to +20%. Intercalibration reduces this to 0.5%, and −7% to +9%, respectively. During the campaign the smallest luminance measured was 0.657 ± 0.003 mcd/m2 on 12 April, and the largest value was 5.94 ± 0.03 mcd/m2 on 2 April. During both occurrences interfering circumstances like snow cover or moonlight were absent. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Physical Sensors)
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Open AccessArticle
Automated Data Quality Assessment of Marine Sensors
Sensors 2011, 11(10), 9589-9602; https://doi.org/10.3390/s111009589 - 11 Oct 2011
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 4392
Abstract
The automated collection of data (e.g., through sensor networks) has led to a massive increase in the quantity of environmental and other data available. The sheer quantity of data and growing need for real-time ingestion of sensor data (e.g., alerts and forecasts from [...] Read more.
The automated collection of data (e.g., through sensor networks) has led to a massive increase in the quantity of environmental and other data available. The sheer quantity of data and growing need for real-time ingestion of sensor data (e.g., alerts and forecasts from physical models) means that automated Quality Assurance/Quality Control (QA/QC) is necessary to ensure that the data collected is fit for purpose. Current automated QA/QC approaches provide assessments based upon hard classifications of the gathered data; often as a binary decision of good or bad data that fails to quantify our confidence in the data for use in different applications. We propose a novel framework for automated data quality assessments that uses Fuzzy Logic to provide a continuous scale of data quality. This continuous quality scale is then used to compute error bars upon the data, which quantify the data uncertainty and provide a more meaningful measure of the data’s fitness for purpose in a particular application compared with hard quality classifications. The design principles of the framework are presented and enable both data statistics and expert knowledge to be incorporated into the uncertainty assessment. We have implemented and tested the framework upon a real time platform of temperature and conductivity sensors that have been deployed to monitor the Derwent Estuary in Hobart, Australia. Results indicate that the error bars generated from the Fuzzy QA/QC implementation are in good agreement with the error bars manually encoded by a domain expert. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Physical Sensors)
Open AccessArticle
Facial Expression Recognition Based on Local Binary Patterns and Kernel Discriminant Isomap
Sensors 2011, 11(10), 9573-9588; https://doi.org/10.3390/s111009573 - 11 Oct 2011
Cited by 74 | Viewed by 5125
Abstract
Facial expression recognition is an interesting and challenging subject. Considering the nonlinear manifold structure of facial images, a new kernel-based manifold learning method, called kernel discriminant isometric mapping (KDIsomap), is proposed. KDIsomap aims to nonlinearly extract the discriminant information by maximizing the interclass [...] Read more.
Facial expression recognition is an interesting and challenging subject. Considering the nonlinear manifold structure of facial images, a new kernel-based manifold learning method, called kernel discriminant isometric mapping (KDIsomap), is proposed. KDIsomap aims to nonlinearly extract the discriminant information by maximizing the interclass scatter while minimizing the intraclass scatter in a reproducing kernel Hilbert space. KDIsomap is used to perform nonlinear dimensionality reduction on the extracted local binary patterns (LBP) facial features, and produce low-dimensional discrimimant embedded data representations with striking performance improvement on facial expression recognition tasks. The nearest neighbor classifier with the Euclidean metric is used for facial expression classification. Facial expression recognition experiments are performed on two popular facial expression databases, i.e., the JAFFE database and the Cohn-Kanade database. Experimental results indicate that KDIsomap obtains the best accuracy of 81.59% on the JAFFE database, and 94.88% on the Cohn-Kanade database. KDIsomap outperforms the other used methods such as principal component analysis (PCA), linear discriminant analysis (LDA), kernel principal component analysis (KPCA), kernel linear discriminant analysis (KLDA) as well as kernel isometric mapping (KIsomap). Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Physical Sensors)
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Open AccessArticle
Photoinduced Electron Transfer Based Ion Sensing within an Optical Fiber
Sensors 2011, 11(10), 9560-9572; https://doi.org/10.3390/s111009560 - 11 Oct 2011
Cited by 21 | Viewed by 3706
Abstract
We combine suspended-core microstructured optical fibers with the photoinduced electron transfer (PET) effect to demonstrate a new type of fluorescent optical fiber-dip sensing platform for small volume ion detection. A sensor design based on a simple model PET-fluoroionophore system and small core microstructured [...] Read more.
We combine suspended-core microstructured optical fibers with the photoinduced electron transfer (PET) effect to demonstrate a new type of fluorescent optical fiber-dip sensing platform for small volume ion detection. A sensor design based on a simple model PET-fluoroionophore system and small core microstructured optical fiber capable of detecting sodium ions is demonstrated. The performance of the dip sensor operating in a high sodium concentration regime (925 ppm Na+) and for lower sodium concentration environments (18.4 ppm Na+) is explored and future approaches to improving the sensor’s signal stability, sensitivity and selectivity are discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Chemical Sensors)
Open AccessArticle
Development of a 2-Channel Embedded Infrared Fiber-Optic Temperature Sensor Using Silver Halide Optical Fibers
Sensors 2011, 11(10), 9549-9559; https://doi.org/10.3390/s111009549 - 11 Oct 2011
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 3930
Abstract
A 2-channel embedded infrared fiber-optic temperature sensor was fabricated using two identical silver halide optical fibers for accurate thermometry without complicated calibration processes. In this study, we measured the output voltages of signal and reference probes according to temperature variation over a temperature [...] Read more.
A 2-channel embedded infrared fiber-optic temperature sensor was fabricated using two identical silver halide optical fibers for accurate thermometry without complicated calibration processes. In this study, we measured the output voltages of signal and reference probes according to temperature variation over a temperature range from 25 to 225 °C. To decide the temperature of the water, the difference between the amounts of infrared radiation emitted from the two temperature sensing probes was measured. The response time and the reproducibility of the fiber-optic temperature sensor were also obtained. Thermometry with the proposed sensor is immune to changes if parameters such as offset voltage, ambient temperature, and emissivity of any warm object. In particular, the temperature sensing probe with silver halide optical fibers can withstand a high temperature/pressure and water-chemistry environment. It is expected that the proposed sensor can be further developed to accurately monitor temperature in harsh environments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Physical Sensors)
Open AccessArticle
A New Laboratory Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) System for Behavioural Tracking of Marine Organisms
Sensors 2011, 11(10), 9532-9548; https://doi.org/10.3390/s111009532 - 11 Oct 2011
Cited by 27 | Viewed by 6250
Abstract
Radio frequency identification (RFID) devices are currently used to quantify several traits of animal behaviour with potential applications for the study of marine organisms. To date, behavioural studies with marine organisms are rare because of the technical difficulty of propagating radio waves within [...] Read more.
Radio frequency identification (RFID) devices are currently used to quantify several traits of animal behaviour with potential applications for the study of marine organisms. To date, behavioural studies with marine organisms are rare because of the technical difficulty of propagating radio waves within the saltwater medium. We present a novel RFID tracking system to study the burrowing behaviour of a valuable fishery resource, the Norway lobster (Nephrops norvegicus L.). The system consists of a network of six controllers, each handling a group of seven antennas. That network was placed below a microcosm tank that recreated important features typical of Nephrops’ grounds, such as the presence of multiple burrows. The animals carried a passive transponder attached to their telson, operating at 13.56 MHz. The tracking system was implemented to concurrently report the behaviour of up to three individuals, in terms of their travelled distances in a specified unit of time and their preferential positioning within the antenna network. To do so, the controllers worked in parallel to send the antenna data to a computer via a USB connection. The tracking accuracy of the system was evaluated by concurrently recording the animals’ behaviour with automated video imaging. During the two experiments, each lasting approximately one week, two different groups of three animals each showed a variable burrow occupancy and a nocturnal displacement under a standard photoperiod regime (12 h light:12 h dark), measured using the RFID method. Similar results were obtained with the video imaging. Our implemented RFID system was therefore capable of efficiently tracking the tested organisms and has a good potential for use on a wide variety of other marine organisms of commercial, aquaculture, and ecological interest. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Physical Sensors)
Open AccessArticle
A Label-Free Electrochemical Immunosensor for Carbofuran Detection Based on a Sol-Gel Entrapped Antibody
Sensors 2011, 11(10), 9520-9531; https://doi.org/10.3390/s111009520 - 10 Oct 2011
Cited by 31 | Viewed by 4036
Abstract
In this study, an anti-carbofuran monoclonal antibody (Ab) was immobilized on the surface of a glassy carbon electrode (GCE) using silica sol-gel (SiSG) technology. Thus, a sensitive, label-free electrochemical immunosensor for the direct determination of carbofuran was developed. The electrochemical performance of immunoreaction [...] Read more.
In this study, an anti-carbofuran monoclonal antibody (Ab) was immobilized on the surface of a glassy carbon electrode (GCE) using silica sol-gel (SiSG) technology. Thus, a sensitive, label-free electrochemical immunosensor for the direct determination of carbofuran was developed. The electrochemical performance of immunoreaction of antigen with the anti-carbofuran monoclonal antibody was investigated by cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), in which phosphate buffer solution containing [Fe(CN)6]3−/4− was used as the base solution for test. Because the complex formed by the immunoreaction hindered the diffusion of [Fe(CN)6]3−/4− on the electrode surface, the redox peak current of the immunosensor in the CV obviously decreased with the increase of the carbofuran concentration. The pH of working solution, the concentration of Ab and the incubation time of carbofuran were studied to ensure the sensitivity and conductivity of the immunosensor. Under the optimal conditions, the linear range of the proposed immunosensor for the determination of carbofuran was from 1 ng/mL to 100 μg/mL and from 50 μg/mL to 200 μg/mL with a detection limit of 0.33 ng/mL (S/N = 3). The proposed immunosensor exhibited good high sensitivity and stability, and it was thus suitable for trace detection of carbofuran pesticide residues. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biosensors)
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