Next Article in Journal
Genotyping by Sequencing Reasserts the Close Relationship between Tef and Its Putative Wild Eragrostis Progenitors
Next Article in Special Issue
Significance of Mangrove Biodiversity Conservation in Fishery Production and Living Conditions of Coastal Communities in Sri Lanka
Previous Article in Journal
Micro-Food Web Structure Shapes Rhizosphere Microbial Communities and Growth in Oak
Previous Article in Special Issue
Ecophysiological Response of Rhizophora mangle to the Variation in Hydrochemistry during Five Years along the Coast of Campeche, México
Article Menu
Issue 1 (March) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Diversity 2018, 10(1), 16; https://doi.org/10.3390/d10010016

Nutrient Removal Efficiency of Rhizophora mangle (L.) Seedlings Exposed to Experimental Dumping of Municipal Waters

1
Instituto de Ecología, Pesquerías y Oceanografía del Golfo de México, Universidad Autónoma de Campeche, Av. Héroe de Nacozari #480, Campus 6 de Investigaciones, 24029 San Francisco de Campeche, Campeche, Mexico
2
Facultad de Ciencia Químico Biológicas, Universidad Autónoma de Campeche, Av. Agustin Melgar s/n entre Juan de la Barrera y Calle 20, Col. Buenavista, 24039 San Francisco de Campeche, Campeche, Mexico
3
Laboratorio de Epidemiología y Ecología Molecular, Escuela de Ciencias de la Salud, Universidad Autónoma de Baja California, Blvd. Zertuche y Blvd. de los Lagos s/n. Fracc, Valle Dorado. C.P., 22890 Ensenada, Baja California, Mexico
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 23 January 2018 / Revised: 11 March 2018 / Accepted: 12 March 2018 / Published: 15 March 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mangrove Ecology and Conservation)
Full-Text   |   PDF [3136 KB, uploaded 15 March 2018]   |  

Abstract

Mangrove forests are conspicuous components of tropical wetlands that sustain continuous exposure to wastewater discharges commonly of municipal origins. Mangroves can remove nutrients from these waters to fulfill their nutrients demand, although the effects of continuous exposure are unknown. An experimental greenhouse imitating tidal regimes was built to measure the efficiency of mangrove seedlings to incorporate nutrients, growth and above biomass production when exposed to three periodic wastewater discharges. The experiment totaled 112 d. Nutrient removal by the exposed group, such as phosphates, ammonia, nitrites, nitrates and dissolved inorganic nitrogen (97%, 98.35%, 71.05%, 56.57% and 64.36%, respectively) was evident up to the second dumping. By the third dumping, all nutrient concentrations increased in the interstitial water, although significant evidence of removal by the plants was not obtained (p > 0.05). Nutrient concentrations in the control group did not change significantly throughout the experiment (p > 0.05). Treated plants increased two-fold in stem girth when compared to the control (p < 0.05), although control plants averaged higher heights (p < 0.05). Biomass of treated group increased up to 45% against 37% of the control during the duration of the experiment (p < 0.05). We suggest that nutrient removal efficiency of mangroves is linked to the maintenance of oxic conditions in the pore-water because of oxygen transference from their aerial to their subterranean radicular system that facilitates the oxidation of reduced nitrogen compounds and plants uptake. Nevertheless, continuous inflows of wastewater would lead to eutrophication, establishment of anoxic conditions in water and soil, and lessening of nutrient absorption of mangroves. View Full-Text
Keywords: municipal wastewater; mangrove biofilter; nutrients removal; functional response municipal wastewater; mangrove biofilter; nutrients removal; functional response
Figures

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
SciFeed

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Agraz-Hernández, C.M.; del Río-Rodríguez, R.E.; Chan-Keb, C.A.; Osti-Saenz, J.; Muñiz-Salazar, R. Nutrient Removal Efficiency of Rhizophora mangle (L.) Seedlings Exposed to Experimental Dumping of Municipal Waters. Diversity 2018, 10, 16.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Diversity EISSN 1424-2818 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top