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Open AccessArticle

Nutrient Removal Efficiency of Rhizophora mangle (L.) Seedlings Exposed to Experimental Dumping of Municipal Waters

Instituto de Ecología, Pesquerías y Oceanografía del Golfo de México, Universidad Autónoma de Campeche, Av. Héroe de Nacozari #480, Campus 6 de Investigaciones, 24029 San Francisco de Campeche, Campeche, Mexico
Facultad de Ciencia Químico Biológicas, Universidad Autónoma de Campeche, Av. Agustin Melgar s/n entre Juan de la Barrera y Calle 20, Col. Buenavista, 24039 San Francisco de Campeche, Campeche, Mexico
Laboratorio de Epidemiología y Ecología Molecular, Escuela de Ciencias de la Salud, Universidad Autónoma de Baja California, Blvd. Zertuche y Blvd. de los Lagos s/n. Fracc, Valle Dorado. C.P., 22890 Ensenada, Baja California, Mexico
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Diversity 2018, 10(1), 16;
Received: 23 January 2018 / Revised: 11 March 2018 / Accepted: 12 March 2018 / Published: 15 March 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mangrove Ecology and Conservation)
Mangrove forests are conspicuous components of tropical wetlands that sustain continuous exposure to wastewater discharges commonly of municipal origins. Mangroves can remove nutrients from these waters to fulfill their nutrients demand, although the effects of continuous exposure are unknown. An experimental greenhouse imitating tidal regimes was built to measure the efficiency of mangrove seedlings to incorporate nutrients, growth and above biomass production when exposed to three periodic wastewater discharges. The experiment totaled 112 d. Nutrient removal by the exposed group, such as phosphates, ammonia, nitrites, nitrates and dissolved inorganic nitrogen (97%, 98.35%, 71.05%, 56.57% and 64.36%, respectively) was evident up to the second dumping. By the third dumping, all nutrient concentrations increased in the interstitial water, although significant evidence of removal by the plants was not obtained (p > 0.05). Nutrient concentrations in the control group did not change significantly throughout the experiment (p > 0.05). Treated plants increased two-fold in stem girth when compared to the control (p < 0.05), although control plants averaged higher heights (p < 0.05). Biomass of treated group increased up to 45% against 37% of the control during the duration of the experiment (p < 0.05). We suggest that nutrient removal efficiency of mangroves is linked to the maintenance of oxic conditions in the pore-water because of oxygen transference from their aerial to their subterranean radicular system that facilitates the oxidation of reduced nitrogen compounds and plants uptake. Nevertheless, continuous inflows of wastewater would lead to eutrophication, establishment of anoxic conditions in water and soil, and lessening of nutrient absorption of mangroves. View Full-Text
Keywords: municipal wastewater; mangrove biofilter; nutrients removal; functional response municipal wastewater; mangrove biofilter; nutrients removal; functional response
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Agraz-Hernández, C.M.; Del Río-Rodríguez, R.E.; Chan-Keb, C.A.; Osti-Saenz, J.; Muñiz-Salazar, R. Nutrient Removal Efficiency of Rhizophora mangle (L.) Seedlings Exposed to Experimental Dumping of Municipal Waters. Diversity 2018, 10, 16.

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