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Review

The Complex Interplay between Vaginal Microbiota, HPV Infection, and Immunological Microenvironment in Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia: A Literature Review

1
Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, IRCCS Foundation Policlinico San Matteo, 27100 Pavia, Italy
2
Department of Clinical, Surgical, Diagnostic and Paediatric Sciences, University of Pavia, 27100 Pavia, Italy
3
Obstetrics and Gynecology Unit, Department of Woman, Child and General and Specialized Surgery, University of Campania, Luigi Vanvitelli, 80138 Naples, Italy
4
Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Messina, 98122 Messina, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Marta del Pino
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2022, 23(13), 7174; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms23137174
Received: 4 May 2022 / Revised: 22 June 2022 / Accepted: 24 June 2022 / Published: 28 June 2022
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Immune Cell Regulation during Inflammatory Responses)
Background: in recent years, many studies were carried out to explore the role of vaginal microbiota in HPV infections and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) progression. The aim of this study was to conduct a review of the literature to analyze the interaction between the vaginal microbiota, the CIN, and the immunological response. Methods: we performed a literature search, considering papers published between November 2015 and September 2021. Results: despite significant evidence suggesting a role of vaginal microbiota in the pathogenesis of HPV-related lesions, some studies still struggle to demonstrate this correlation. However, the vaginal microbiota of HPV-positive women shows an increased diversity, combined with a reduced relative abundance of Lactobacillus spp. and a higher pH. In cervical dysplasia progression, a strong association is found with new bacteria, and with the deregulation of pathways and hyperexpression of cytokines leading to chronic inflammation. Conclusions: in HPV progression, there is a strong correlation between potential biomarkers, such as Sneathia and Delftia found in community state types IV and II, and chronic inflammation with cytokine overexpression. Better analysis of these factors could be of use in the prevention of the progression of the disease and, eventually, in new therapeutic strategies. View Full-Text
Keywords: microbiota; CIN; HPV; inflammation microbiota; CIN; HPV; inflammation
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MDPI and ACS Style

Gardella, B.; Pasquali, M.F.; La Verde, M.; Cianci, S.; Torella, M.; Dominoni, M. The Complex Interplay between Vaginal Microbiota, HPV Infection, and Immunological Microenvironment in Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia: A Literature Review. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2022, 23, 7174. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms23137174

AMA Style

Gardella B, Pasquali MF, La Verde M, Cianci S, Torella M, Dominoni M. The Complex Interplay between Vaginal Microbiota, HPV Infection, and Immunological Microenvironment in Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia: A Literature Review. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2022; 23(13):7174. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms23137174

Chicago/Turabian Style

Gardella, Barbara, Marianna Francesca Pasquali, Marco La Verde, Stefano Cianci, Marco Torella, and Mattia Dominoni. 2022. "The Complex Interplay between Vaginal Microbiota, HPV Infection, and Immunological Microenvironment in Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia: A Literature Review" International Journal of Molecular Sciences 23, no. 13: 7174. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms23137174

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