Hydrogen is the ultimate vector for a carbon-free, sustainable green-energy. While being the most promising candidate to serve this purpose, hydrogen inherits a series of characteristics making it particularly difficult to handle, store, transport and use in a safe manner. The researchers’ attention has thus shifted to storing hydrogen in its more manageable forms: the light metal hydrides and related derivatives (ammonia-borane, tetrahydridoborates/borohydrides, tetrahydridoaluminates/alanates or reactive hydride composites). Even then, the thermodynamic and kinetic behavior faces either too high energy barriers or sluggish kinetics (or both), and an efficient tool to overcome these issues is through nanoconfinement. Nanoconfined energy storage materials are the current state-of-the-art approach regarding hydrogen storage field, and the current review aims to summarize the most recent progress in this intriguing field. The latest reviews concerning H2
production and storage are discussed, and the shift from bulk to nanomaterials is described in the context of physical and chemical aspects of nanoconfinement effects in the obtained nanocomposites. The types of hosts used for hydrogen materials are divided in classes of substances, the mean of hydride inclusion in said hosts and the classes of hydrogen storage materials are presented with their most recent trends and future prospects.
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License
which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.