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Commentary

Potential Suicide Prophylactic Activity by the Fish Oil Metabolite, 4-Hydroxyhexenal

Gänsbühlgartenweg 7, CH-4132 Muttenz, Switzerland
Retired pharmacologist.
Academic Editor: Dong Soon Im
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2022, 23(13), 6953; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms23136953
Received: 6 June 2022 / Revised: 20 June 2022 / Accepted: 21 June 2022 / Published: 23 June 2022
(This article belongs to the Collection Advances in Omega-3 Research)
Low levels of n-3 poly-unsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) and high levels of n-6 PUFAs in the blood circulation are associated with an increased risk for suicide. Clinical studies indicate that docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, a n-3 PUFA found in fish-oil) displays protective effects against suicide. It has recently been proposed that the activation of the transcription factor NRF2 might be the pharmacological activity that is common to current anti-suicidal medications. Oxidation products from fish oil, including those from DHA, are electrophiles that reversibly bind to a protein ‘KEAP1’, which acts as the molecular inhibitor of NRF2 and so indirectly promotes NRF2-transcriptional activity. In the majority of publications, the NRF2-stimulant effect of DHA is ascribed to the metabolite 4-hydroxyhexenal (4HHE). It is suggested to investigate whether 4HHE will display a therapeutically useful anti-suicidal efficacy. View Full-Text
Keywords: suicide prevention; fish oil; docosahexaenoic acid; NRF2; 4-hydroxyhexenal suicide prevention; fish oil; docosahexaenoic acid; NRF2; 4-hydroxyhexenal
MDPI and ACS Style

Kalkman, H.O. Potential Suicide Prophylactic Activity by the Fish Oil Metabolite, 4-Hydroxyhexenal. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2022, 23, 6953. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms23136953

AMA Style

Kalkman HO. Potential Suicide Prophylactic Activity by the Fish Oil Metabolite, 4-Hydroxyhexenal. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2022; 23(13):6953. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms23136953

Chicago/Turabian Style

Kalkman, Hans O. 2022. "Potential Suicide Prophylactic Activity by the Fish Oil Metabolite, 4-Hydroxyhexenal" International Journal of Molecular Sciences 23, no. 13: 6953. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms23136953

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