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Recent Advances in Carbon and Nitrogen Metabolism in C3 Plants
Article

Application of Nitrate, Ammonium, or Urea Changes the Concentrations of Ureides, Urea, Amino Acids and Other Metabolites in Xylem Sap and in the Organs of Soybean Plants (Glycine max (L.) Merr.)

1
Graduate School of Science and Technology, Niigata University, Niigata 950-2181, Japan
2
Faculty of Bioresource Sciences, Akita Prefectural University, Akita 010-0195, Japan
3
College of Agriculture, Ibaraki University, Mito 310-0393, Japan
4
Faculty of Applied Biosciences, Tokyo University of Agriculture, Tokyo 156-8502, Japan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Juan Manuel Ruiz Lozano
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(9), 4573; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22094573
Received: 29 March 2021 / Revised: 16 April 2021 / Accepted: 22 April 2021 / Published: 27 April 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Molecular Basis of Carbon and Nitrogen Metabolism in Plants)
Soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) plants form root nodules and fix atmospheric dinitrogen, while also utilizing the combined nitrogen absorbed from roots. In this study, nodulated soybean plants were supplied with 5 mM N nitrate, ammonium, or urea for 3 days, and the changes in metabolite concentrations in the xylem sap and each organ were analyzed. The ureide concentration in the xylem sap was the highest in the control plants that were supplied with an N-free nutrient solution, but nitrate and asparagine were the principal compounds in the xylem sap with nitrate treatment. The metabolite concentrations in both the xylem sap and each organ were similar between the ammonium and urea treatments. Considerable amounts of urea were present in the xylem sap and all the organs among all the treatments. Positive correlations were observed between the ureides and urea concentrations in the xylem sap as well as in the roots and leaves, although no correlations were observed between the urea and arginine concentrations, suggesting that urea may have originated from ureide degradation in soybean plants, possibly in the roots. This is the first finding of the possibility of ureide degradation to urea in the underground organs of soybean plants. View Full-Text
Keywords: amino acid; soybean; ammonia; arginine; nitrate; nodule; urea; ureide amino acid; soybean; ammonia; arginine; nitrate; nodule; urea; ureide
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MDPI and ACS Style

Ono, Y.; Fukasawa, M.; Sueyoshi, K.; Ohtake, N.; Sato, T.; Tanabata, S.; Toyota, R.; Higuchi, K.; Saito, A.; Ohyama, T. Application of Nitrate, Ammonium, or Urea Changes the Concentrations of Ureides, Urea, Amino Acids and Other Metabolites in Xylem Sap and in the Organs of Soybean Plants (Glycine max (L.) Merr.). Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22, 4573. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22094573

AMA Style

Ono Y, Fukasawa M, Sueyoshi K, Ohtake N, Sato T, Tanabata S, Toyota R, Higuchi K, Saito A, Ohyama T. Application of Nitrate, Ammonium, or Urea Changes the Concentrations of Ureides, Urea, Amino Acids and Other Metabolites in Xylem Sap and in the Organs of Soybean Plants (Glycine max (L.) Merr.). International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2021; 22(9):4573. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22094573

Chicago/Turabian Style

Ono, Yuki, Masashige Fukasawa, Kuni Sueyoshi, Norikuni Ohtake, Takashi Sato, Sayuri Tanabata, Ryo Toyota, Kyoko Higuchi, Akihiro Saito, and Takuji Ohyama. 2021. "Application of Nitrate, Ammonium, or Urea Changes the Concentrations of Ureides, Urea, Amino Acids and Other Metabolites in Xylem Sap and in the Organs of Soybean Plants (Glycine max (L.) Merr.)" International Journal of Molecular Sciences 22, no. 9: 4573. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22094573

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