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Review

Pulsed Electromagnetic Field Stimulation in Osteogenesis and Chondrogenesis: Signaling Pathways and Therapeutic Implications

1
Department of Translational Medicine and for Romagna, University of Ferrara, 44121 Ferrara, Italy
2
Department of Medical Sciences, University of Ferrara, 44121 Ferrara, Italy
3
IGEA SpA, Clinical Biophysiscs, 41012 Carpi, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(2), 809; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22020809
Received: 2 December 2020 / Revised: 30 December 2020 / Accepted: 11 January 2021 / Published: 15 January 2021
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are the main cell players in tissue repair and thanks to their self-renewal and multi-lineage differentiation capabilities, they gained significant attention as cell source for tissue engineering (TE) approaches aimed at restoring bone and cartilage defects. Despite significant progress, their therapeutic application remains debated: the TE construct often fails to completely restore the biomechanical properties of the native tissue, leading to poor clinical outcomes in the long term. Pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMFs) are currently used as a safe and non-invasive treatment to enhance bone healing and to provide joint protection. PEMFs enhance both osteogenic and chondrogenic differentiation of MSCs. Here, we provide extensive review of the signaling pathways modulated by PEMFs during MSCs osteogenic and chondrogenic differentiation. Particular attention has been given to the PEMF-mediated activation of the adenosine signaling and their regulation of the inflammatory response as key player in TE approaches. Overall, the application of PEMFs in tissue repair is foreseen: (1) in vitro: to improve the functional and mechanical properties of the engineered construct; (2) in vivo: (i) to favor graft integration, (ii) to control the local inflammatory response, and (iii) to foster tissue repair from both implanted and resident MSCs cells. View Full-Text
Keywords: mesenchymal stem cells; pulsed electromagnetic fields; osteogenic differentiation; chondrogenic differentiation; tissue engineering; adenosine receptors mesenchymal stem cells; pulsed electromagnetic fields; osteogenic differentiation; chondrogenic differentiation; tissue engineering; adenosine receptors
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MDPI and ACS Style

Varani, K.; Vincenzi, F.; Pasquini, S.; Blo, I.; Salati, S.; Cadossi, M.; De Mattei, M. Pulsed Electromagnetic Field Stimulation in Osteogenesis and Chondrogenesis: Signaling Pathways and Therapeutic Implications. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22, 809. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22020809

AMA Style

Varani K, Vincenzi F, Pasquini S, Blo I, Salati S, Cadossi M, De Mattei M. Pulsed Electromagnetic Field Stimulation in Osteogenesis and Chondrogenesis: Signaling Pathways and Therapeutic Implications. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2021; 22(2):809. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22020809

Chicago/Turabian Style

Varani, Katia, Fabrizio Vincenzi, Silvia Pasquini, Irene Blo, Simona Salati, Matteo Cadossi, and Monica De Mattei. 2021. "Pulsed Electromagnetic Field Stimulation in Osteogenesis and Chondrogenesis: Signaling Pathways and Therapeutic Implications" International Journal of Molecular Sciences 22, no. 2: 809. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22020809

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