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The Molecular Basis of COVID-19 Pathogenesis, Conventional and Nanomedicine Therapy
Review

Emerging Advances of Nanotechnology in Drug and Vaccine Delivery against Viral Associated Respiratory Infectious Diseases (VARID)

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Laboratory for Innovations in Micro Engineering (LiME), Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Victoria, Victoria, BC V8P 5C2, Canada
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Biomaterials and Tissue Engineering Department, Breast Cancer Research Center, Motamed Cancer Institute, ACECR, Tehran 1517964311, Iran
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Department of Immunology, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran 1449614535, Iran
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ATMP Department, Breast Cancer Research Center, Motamed Cancer Institute, ACECR, Tehran 1517964311, Iran
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Department of Clinical Biochemistry, School of Medicine, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz 7134845794, Iran
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Autophagy Research Center, Health Policy Research Center, Institute of Health, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz 7134845794, Iran
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Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, Bu-Ali Sina University, Hamedan 6517838695, Iran
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Influenza and Respiratory Viruses Department, Pasteur Institute of IRAN, Tehran 1316943551, Iran
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Department of Pharmaceutical Nanotechnology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran 14155-6451, Iran
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Department of Human Anatomy and Cell Science, Rady College of Medicine, Max Rady Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB R3E 0J9, Canada
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Department of Laboratory Medicine, School of Health Sciences, University of Tasmania, Launceston, TAS 7248, Australia
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Roger Williams Medical Center, Immuno-Oncology Institute (Ix2), Providence, RI 02908, USA
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Center for Translational Medicine, Division of Pulmonary, Allergy and Critical Care Medicine, Jane & Leonard Korman Respiratory Institute, Sidney Kimmel Medical College, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA 19107, USA
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Division of Pulmonary, Critical Care, and Sleep Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, U.C. Davis Lung Center, Davis School of Medicine, University of California, Davis, CA 95817, USA
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Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Mather, CA 95817, USA
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Biology of Breathing Theme, Children Hospital Research Institute of Manitoba, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB R3E 0J9, Canada
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Research Institute of Oncology and Hematology, Cancer Care Manitoba, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB R3E 0J9, Canada
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Biotechnology Center, Silesian University of Technology, Akademicka 2A, 44-100 Gliwice, Poland
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Center for Advanced Materials and Related Technologies, University of Victoria, Victoria, BC V8P 5C2, Canada
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors have equal contributions.
Academic Editors: Francesco Trotta, Fabrizio Caldera and Ali Zarrabi
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(13), 6937; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22136937
Received: 28 May 2021 / Revised: 19 June 2021 / Accepted: 19 June 2021 / Published: 28 June 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Materials for Infectious Diseases)
Viral-associated respiratory infectious diseases are one of the most prominent subsets of respiratory failures, known as viral respiratory infections (VRI). VRIs are proceeded by an infection caused by viruses infecting the respiratory system. For the past 100 years, viral associated respiratory epidemics have been the most common cause of infectious disease worldwide. Due to several drawbacks of the current anti-viral treatments, such as drug resistance generation and non-targeting of viral proteins, the development of novel nanotherapeutic or nano-vaccine strategies can be considered essential. Due to their specific physical and biological properties, nanoparticles hold promising opportunities for both anti-viral treatments and vaccines against viral infections. Besides the specific physiological properties of the respiratory system, there is a significant demand for utilizing nano-designs in the production of vaccines or antiviral agents for airway-localized administration. SARS-CoV-2, as an immediate example of respiratory viruses, is an enveloped, positive-sense, single-stranded RNA virus belonging to the coronaviridae family. COVID-19 can lead to acute respiratory distress syndrome, similarly to other members of the coronaviridae. Hence, reviewing the current and past emerging nanotechnology-based medications on similar respiratory viral diseases can identify pathways towards generating novel SARS-CoV-2 nanotherapeutics and/or nano-vaccines. View Full-Text
Keywords: viral infection; SARS-CoV-2; nanomedicine; respiratory disease; nano-vaccine; COVID-19 viral infection; SARS-CoV-2; nanomedicine; respiratory disease; nano-vaccine; COVID-19
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MDPI and ACS Style

Seyfoori, A.; Shokrollahi Barough, M.; Mokarram, P.; Ahmadi, M.; Mehrbod, P.; Sheidary, A.; Madrakian, T.; Kiumarsi, M.; Walsh, T.; McAlinden, K.D.; Ghosh, C.C.; Sharma, P.; Zeki, A.A.; Ghavami, S.; Akbari, M. Emerging Advances of Nanotechnology in Drug and Vaccine Delivery against Viral Associated Respiratory Infectious Diseases (VARID). Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22, 6937. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22136937

AMA Style

Seyfoori A, Shokrollahi Barough M, Mokarram P, Ahmadi M, Mehrbod P, Sheidary A, Madrakian T, Kiumarsi M, Walsh T, McAlinden KD, Ghosh CC, Sharma P, Zeki AA, Ghavami S, Akbari M. Emerging Advances of Nanotechnology in Drug and Vaccine Delivery against Viral Associated Respiratory Infectious Diseases (VARID). International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2021; 22(13):6937. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22136937

Chicago/Turabian Style

Seyfoori, Amir, Mahdieh Shokrollahi Barough, Pooneh Mokarram, Mazaher Ahmadi, Parvaneh Mehrbod, Alireza Sheidary, Tayyebeh Madrakian, Mohammad Kiumarsi, Tavia Walsh, Kielan D. McAlinden, Chandra C. Ghosh, Pawan Sharma, Amir A. Zeki, Saeid Ghavami, and Mohsen Akbari. 2021. "Emerging Advances of Nanotechnology in Drug and Vaccine Delivery against Viral Associated Respiratory Infectious Diseases (VARID)" International Journal of Molecular Sciences 22, no. 13: 6937. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22136937

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