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Article

Dietary AhR Ligands Regulate AhRR Expression in Intestinal Immune Cells and Intestinal Microbiota Composition

1
Immunology and Environment, Life and Medical Sciences (LIMES) Institute, University of Bonn, Carl-Troll-Straße 31, 53115 Bonn, Germany
2
Department of Life Science and Medical Bioscience, Graduate School of Advanced Science and Engineering, Waseda University, 2-2 Wakamatsucho, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 162-8480, Japan
3
Computational Bio Big-Data Open Innovation Laboratory (CBBD-OIL), National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, 3-4-1 Okubo, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 169-8555, Japan
4
Research Organization for Nano and Life Innovation, Waseda University, 513 Wasedatsurumaki-cho, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 162-0041, Japan
5
Institute for Advanced Research of Biosystem Dynamics, Waseda Research Institute for Science and Engineering, Graduate School of Advanced Science and Engineering, Waseda University, 3-4-1 Okubo, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 169-8555, Japan
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(9), 3189; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21093189
Received: 31 March 2020 / Revised: 24 April 2020 / Accepted: 28 April 2020 / Published: 30 April 2020
A diet rich in vegetables and fruit is generally considered healthy because of a high content of phytochemicals, vitamins, and fiber. The phytochemical indole-3-carbinol (I3C), a derivative of glucobrassicin, is sold as a dietary supplement promising diverse health benefits. I3C metabolites act as ligands of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), an important sensor for environmental polyaromatic chemicals. Here, we investigated how dietary AhR ligand supplementation influences AhR target gene expression and intestinal microbiota composition. For this, we used AhR repressor (AhRR)-reporter mice as a tool to study AhR activation in the intestine following dietary I3C-supplementation in comparison with AhR ligand-deprived diets, including a high fat diet. AhRR expression in intestinal immune cells was mainly driven by dietary AhR ligands and was independent of microbial metabolites. A lack of dietary AhR ligands caused enhanced susceptibility to dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis and correlated with the expansion of Enterobacteriaceae, whereas Clostridiales, Muribaculaceae, and Rikenellaceae were strongly reduced. I3C supplementation largely reverted this effect. Comparison of I3C-induced changes in microbiota composition using wild-type (WT), AhRR-deficient, and AhR-deficient mice revealed both AhR-dependent and -independent alterations in the microbiome. Overall, our study demonstrates that dietary AhR ligand supplementation has a profound influence on Ahrr expression in intestinal immune cells as well as microbiota composition. View Full-Text
Keywords: mucosal immunity; colitis; microbiome; aryl hydrocarbon receptor; aryl hydrocarbon receptor repressor; phytochemicals mucosal immunity; colitis; microbiome; aryl hydrocarbon receptor; aryl hydrocarbon receptor repressor; phytochemicals
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MDPI and ACS Style

Schanz, O.; Chijiiwa, R.; Cengiz, S.C.; Majlesain, Y.; Weighardt, H.; Takeyama, H.; Förster, I. Dietary AhR Ligands Regulate AhRR Expression in Intestinal Immune Cells and Intestinal Microbiota Composition. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21, 3189. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21093189

AMA Style

Schanz O, Chijiiwa R, Cengiz SC, Majlesain Y, Weighardt H, Takeyama H, Förster I. Dietary AhR Ligands Regulate AhRR Expression in Intestinal Immune Cells and Intestinal Microbiota Composition. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2020; 21(9):3189. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21093189

Chicago/Turabian Style

Schanz, Oliver, Rieka Chijiiwa, Sevgi C. Cengiz, Yasmin Majlesain, Heike Weighardt, Haruko Takeyama, and Irmgard Förster. 2020. "Dietary AhR Ligands Regulate AhRR Expression in Intestinal Immune Cells and Intestinal Microbiota Composition" International Journal of Molecular Sciences 21, no. 9: 3189. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21093189

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