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Review

Photoacoustic Imaging Probes Based on Tetrapyrroles and Related Compounds

1
Institute of Organic Chemistry, RWTH Aachen University, Landoltweg 1, 52074 Aachen, Germany
2
KAUST Catalysis Centre (KCC), King Abdullah University of Science and Technology, Thuwal 23955-6900, Saudi Arabia
3
Institute for Experimental Molecular Imaging, Forckenbeckstrasse 55, RWTH Aachen, University Clinic, 52074 Aachen, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(9), 3082; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21093082
Received: 31 March 2020 / Revised: 21 April 2020 / Accepted: 22 April 2020 / Published: 27 April 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in the Chemistry of Porphyrins and Related Macrocycles)
Photoacoustic imaging (PAI) is a rapidly evolving field in molecular imaging that enables imaging in the depths of ultrasound and with the sensitivity of optical modalities. PAI bases on the photoexcitation of a chromophore, which converts the absorbed light into thermal energy, causing an acoustic pressure wave that can be captured with ultrasound transducers, in generating an image. For in vivo imaging, chromophores strongly absorbing in the near-infrared range (NIR; > 680 nm) are required. As tetrapyrroles have a long history in biomedical applications, novel tetrapyrroles and inspired mimics have been pursued as potentially suitable contrast agents for PAI. The goal of this review is to summarize the current state of the art in PAI applications using tetrapyrroles and related macrocycles inspired by it, highlighting those compounds exhibiting strong NIR-absorption. Furthermore, we discuss the current developments of other absorbers for in vivo photoacoustic (PA) applications. View Full-Text
Keywords: porphyrins; core-modified porphyrins; phthalocyanines; activatable probes; azacalixphyrin; near-infrared (NIR) dyes; NIR-II dyes porphyrins; core-modified porphyrins; phthalocyanines; activatable probes; azacalixphyrin; near-infrared (NIR) dyes; NIR-II dyes
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MDPI and ACS Style

Merkes, J.M.; Zhu, L.; Bahukhandi, S.B.; Rueping, M.; Kiessling, F.; Banala, S. Photoacoustic Imaging Probes Based on Tetrapyrroles and Related Compounds. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21, 3082. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21093082

AMA Style

Merkes JM, Zhu L, Bahukhandi SB, Rueping M, Kiessling F, Banala S. Photoacoustic Imaging Probes Based on Tetrapyrroles and Related Compounds. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2020; 21(9):3082. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21093082

Chicago/Turabian Style

Merkes, Jean M., Leiming Zhu, Srishti B. Bahukhandi, Magnus Rueping, Fabian Kiessling, and Srinivas Banala. 2020. "Photoacoustic Imaging Probes Based on Tetrapyrroles and Related Compounds" International Journal of Molecular Sciences 21, no. 9: 3082. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21093082

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