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The Contribution of Astrocyte Autophagy to Systemic Metabolism
Review

Biological Factors, Metals, and Biomaterials Regulating Osteogenesis through Autophagy

1
Department of Pharmacy, University “G. d’Annunzio”, 66100 Chieti-Pescara, Italy
2
Department of Medicine and Ageing Sciences, University “G. d’Annunzio”, 66100 Chieti-Pescara, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(8), 2789; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21082789
Received: 28 February 2020 / Revised: 10 April 2020 / Accepted: 13 April 2020 / Published: 17 April 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Autophagy in Health, Ageing and Disease)
Bone loss raises great concern in numerous situations, such as ageing and many diseases and in both orthopedic and dentistry fields of application, with an extensive impact on health care. Therefore, it is crucial to understand the mechanisms and the determinants that can regulate osteogenesis and ensure bone balance. Autophagy is a well conserved lysosomal degradation pathway, which is known to be highly active during differentiation and development. This review provides a revision of the literature on all the exogen factors that can modulate osteogenesis through autophagy regulation. Metal ion exposition, mechanical stimuli, and biological factors, including hormones, nutrients, and metabolic conditions, were taken into consideration for their ability to tune osteogenic differentiation through autophagy. In addition, an exhaustive overview of biomaterials, both for orthopedic and dentistry applications, enhancing osteogenesis by modulation of the autophagic process is provided as well. Already investigated conditions regulating bone regeneration via autophagy need to be better understood for finely tailoring innovative therapeutic treatments and designing novel biomaterials. View Full-Text
Keywords: autophagy; osteogenesis; bone regeneration; osteoclastogenesis; biomaterial; osteoclast; oxidative stress; aging; cell survival; osteoblast autophagy; osteogenesis; bone regeneration; osteoclastogenesis; biomaterial; osteoclast; oxidative stress; aging; cell survival; osteoblast
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MDPI and ACS Style

di Giacomo, V.; Cataldi, A.; Sancilio, S. Biological Factors, Metals, and Biomaterials Regulating Osteogenesis through Autophagy. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21, 2789. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21082789

AMA Style

di Giacomo V, Cataldi A, Sancilio S. Biological Factors, Metals, and Biomaterials Regulating Osteogenesis through Autophagy. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2020; 21(8):2789. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21082789

Chicago/Turabian Style

di Giacomo, Viviana, Amelia Cataldi, and Silvia Sancilio. 2020. "Biological Factors, Metals, and Biomaterials Regulating Osteogenesis through Autophagy" International Journal of Molecular Sciences 21, no. 8: 2789. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21082789

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