Cancer heterogeneity increasingly requires ultrasensitive techniques that allow early diagnosis for personalized treatment. In addition, they should preferably be non-invasive tools that do not damage surrounding tissues or contribute to body toxicity. In this context, liquid biopsy of biological samples such as urine, blood, or saliva represents an ideal approximation of what is happening in real time in the affected tissues. Plasmonic nanoparticles are emerging as an alternative or complement to current diagnostic techniques, being able to detect and quantify novel biomarkers such as specific peptides and proteins, microRNA, circulating tumor DNA and cells, and exosomes. Here, we review the latest ideas focusing on the use of plasmonic nanoparticles in coded and label-free surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectroscopy. Moreover, surface plasmon resonance (SPR) spectroscopy, colorimetric assays, dynamic light scattering (DLS) spectroscopy, mass spectrometry or total internal reflection fluorescence (TIRF) microscopy among others are briefly examined in order to highlight the potential and versatility of plasmonics.
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License
which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited