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Open AccessArticle

Lead (Pb) as a Factor Initiating and Potentiating Inflammation in Human THP-1 Macrophages

1
Department of Biochemistry and Medical Chemistry, Pomeranian Medical University in Szczecin, Powstańców Wlkp. 72 Str., 70-111 Szczecin, Poland
2
Department of Physiology, Pomeranian Medical University in Szczecin, Powstańców Wlkp. 72 Str., 70-111 Szczecin, Poland
3
Department of Medical Chemistry, Pomeranian Medical University in Szczecin, Powstańców Wlkp. 72, 70-111, Poland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(6), 2254; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21062254
Received: 23 January 2020 / Revised: 12 March 2020 / Accepted: 21 March 2020 / Published: 24 March 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular Mechanisms of Lead Neurotoxicity)
The aim of this study was to assess the influence of lead (Pb) at low concentrations (imitating Pb levels in human blood in chronic environmental exposure to this metal) on interleukin 1β (IL-1β) and interleukin 6 (IL-6) concentrations and the activity and expression of COX-1 and COX-2 in THP-1 macrophages. Macrophages were cultured in vitro in the presence of Pb at concentrations of: 1.25 μg/dL; 2.5 μg/dL; 5 μg/dL; 10 μg/dL. The first two concentrations of Pb were selected on the basis of our earlier study, which showed that Pb concentration in whole blood (PbB) of young women living in the northern regions of Poland and in the cord blood of their newborn children was within this range (a dose imitating environmental exposure). Concentrations of 5 μg/dL and 10 μg/dL correspond to the previously permissible PbB concentrations in children or pregnant women, and adults. Our results indicate that even low concentrations of Pb cause an increase in production of inflammatory interleukins (IL-1β and IL-6), increases expression of COX-1 and COX-2, and increases thromboxane B2 and prostaglandin E2 concentration in macrophages. This clearly suggests that the development of inflammation is associated not only with COX-2 but also with COX-1, which, until recently, had only been attributed constitutive expression. It can be concluded that environmental Pb concentrations are able to activate the monocytes/macrophages similarly to the manner observed during inflammation. View Full-Text
Keywords: lead (Pb); inflammation; cyclooxygenases; IL-1β; IL-6; THP-1 macrophages lead (Pb); inflammation; cyclooxygenases; IL-1β; IL-6; THP-1 macrophages
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Metryka, E.; Kupnicka, P.; Kapczuk, P.; Simińska, D.; Tarnowski, M.; Goschorska, M.; Gutowska, I.; Chlubek, D.; Baranowska-Bosiacka, I. Lead (Pb) as a Factor Initiating and Potentiating Inflammation in Human THP-1 Macrophages. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21, 2254.

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