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Open AccessArticle

CharXgen-Activated Bamboo Charcoal Encapsulated in Sodium Alginate Microsphere as the Absorbent of Uremic Toxins to Retard Kidney Function Deterioration

1
Division of Nephrology, Department of Internal Medicine, Mackay Memorial Hospital, Taipei 10449, Taiwan
2
Mackay Junior College of Medicine, Nursing and Management, 11260 Taipei, Taiwan
3
Department of Medicine, Mackay Medical College, 252 New Taipei City, Taiwan
4
Division of Nephrology, Department of Internal Medicine, Keelung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, 20401 Keelung, Taiwan
5
Division of Cardiology, Department of Internal Medicine, National Taiwan University Hospital, 10048 Taipei, Taiwan
6
Division of Nephrology, Department of Internal Medicine, National Taiwan University Hospital, 10048 Taipei, Taiwan
7
Institute of Biomedical Engineering, National Taiwan University, 10048 Taipei, Taiwan
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this article and thus share corresponding authorship.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(4), 1257; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21041257 (registering DOI)
Received: 6 January 2020 / Revised: 9 February 2020 / Accepted: 11 February 2020 / Published: 13 February 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bio-Engineering and Nano-Medicine)
Indoxyl sulphate (IS) and p-cresyl sulphate (PCS) are two protein bound uraemic toxins accumulated in chronic kidney disease (CKD) and associated with adverse outcomes. The purpose of this study isto evaluate the effect of the new activated charcoal, CharXgen, on renal function protection and lowering serum uraemic toxins in CKD animal model. The physical character of CharXgen was analyzed before and after activation procedure by Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) and X-ray diffractometer (XRD). The effect of CharXgen on biochemistry and lowering uremic toxins was evaluated by in vitro binding assay and CKD animal model. CharXgen have high interior surface area analyzed by SEM and XRD and have been produced from local bamboo after an activation process. CharXgen was able to effectively absorb IS, p-cresol and phosphate in an in vitro gastrointestinal tract simulation study. The animal study showed that CharXgen did not cause intestine blackening. Serum albuminand liver function did not change after feeding with CharXgen. Moreover, renal function was improved in CKD rats fed with CharXgen as compared to the CKD group, and there were no significant differences in the CKD and the CKD + AST-120 groups. Serum IS and PCS were higher in the CKD group and lower in rats treated with CharXgen and AST-120. In rats treated with CharXgen, Fibroblast growth factor 23 was significantly decreased as compared to the CKD group. This change cannot be found in rats fed with AST-120.It indicates that CharXgen is a new safe and non-toxic activated charcoal having potential in attenuating renal function deterioration and lowering protein-bound uraemic toxins. Whether the introduction of this new charcoal could further have renal protection in CKD patients will need to be investigated further.
Keywords: Bamboo charcoal; CharXgen; Chronic kidney disease; Indoxyl sulphate; P-cresolsulphate; Fibroblast growth factor 23 Bamboo charcoal; CharXgen; Chronic kidney disease; Indoxyl sulphate; P-cresolsulphate; Fibroblast growth factor 23
MDPI and ACS Style

Lin, C.-J.; Sun, C.-Y.; Wu, C.-J.; Wu, C.-C.; Wu, V.; Lin, F.-H. CharXgen-Activated Bamboo Charcoal Encapsulated in Sodium Alginate Microsphere as the Absorbent of Uremic Toxins to Retard Kidney Function Deterioration. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21, 1257.

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