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Cytonemes Versus Neutrophil Extracellular Traps in the Fight of Neutrophils with Microbes

1
Lomonosov Moscow State University, A. N. Belozersky Institute of Physico-Chemical Biology, 119991 Moscow, Russia
2
Physical Department, Lomonosov Moscow State University, 119234 Moscow, Russia
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(2), 586; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21020586
Received: 16 December 2019 / Revised: 9 January 2020 / Accepted: 10 January 2020 / Published: 16 January 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Current Trends of Neutrophil Biology)
Neutrophils can phagocytose microorganisms and destroy them intracellularly using special bactericides located in intracellular granules. Recent evidence suggests that neutrophils can catch and kill pathogens extracellularly using the same bactericidal agents. For this, live neutrophils create a cytoneme network, and dead neutrophils provide chromatin and proteins to form neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs). Cytonemes are filamentous tubulovesicular secretory protrusions of living neutrophils with intact nuclei. Granular bactericides are localized in membrane vesicles and tubules of which cytonemes are composed. NETs are strands of decondensed DNA associated with histones released by died neutrophils. In NETs, bactericidal neutrophilic agents are adsorbed onto DNA strands and are not covered with a membrane. Cytonemes and NETs occupy different places in protecting the body against infections. Cytonemes can develop within a few minutes at the site of infection through the action of nitric oxide or actin-depolymerizing alkaloids of invading microbes. The formation of NET in vitro occurs due to chromatin decondensation resulting from prolonged activation of neutrophils with PMA (phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate) or other stimuli, or in vivo due to citrullination of histones with peptidylarginine deiminase 4. In addition to antibacterial activity, cytonemes are involved in cell adhesion and communications. NETs play a role in autoimmunity and thrombosis. View Full-Text
Keywords: neutrophil; cytoneme; membrane tubulovesicular extensions; neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs); nitric oxide; actin depolymerizing microbial alkaloids neutrophil; cytoneme; membrane tubulovesicular extensions; neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs); nitric oxide; actin depolymerizing microbial alkaloids
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Galkina, S.I.; Fedorova, N.V.; Golenkina, E.A.; Stadnichuk, V.I.; Sud’ina, G.F. Cytonemes Versus Neutrophil Extracellular Traps in the Fight of Neutrophils with Microbes. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21, 586.

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