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Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Aplastic Anemia and Myelodysplastic Syndromes: The “Seed and Soil” Crosstalk

1
Hematology Unit, Fondazione IRCCS Ca’ Granda Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico, 20100 Milan, Italy
2
Department of Hematology and Onco-Hematology, Università degli Studi, 20100 Milan, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(15), 5438; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21155438
Received: 2 July 2020 / Revised: 28 July 2020 / Accepted: 28 July 2020 / Published: 30 July 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mesenchymal Stem Cell Therapy of Autoimmune Diseases)
There is growing interest in the contribution of the marrow niche to the pathogenesis of bone marrow failure syndromes, i.e., aplastic anemia (AA) and myelodysplastic syndromes (MDSs). In particular, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are multipotent cells that contribute to the organization and function of the hematopoietic niche through their repopulating and supporting abilities, as well as immunomodulatory properties. The latter are of great interest in MDSs and, particularly, AA, where an immune attack against hematopoietic stem cells is the key pathogenic player. We, therefore, conducted Medline research, including all available evidence from the last 10 years concerning the role of MSCs in these two diseases. The data presented show that MSCs display morphologic, functional, and genetic alterations in AA and MDSs and contribute to immune imbalance, ineffective hematopoiesis, and leukemic evolution. Importantly, adoptive MSC infusion from healthy donors can be exploited to heal the “sick” niche, with even better outcomes if cotransplanted with allogeneic hematopoietic stem cells. Finally, future studies on MSCs and the whole microenvironment will further elucidate AA and MDS pathogenesis and possibly improve treatment. View Full-Text
Keywords: aplastic anemia; myelodysplastic syndromes; mesenchymal stem cells; bone marrow; microenvironment; hematopoietic stem cell transplant aplastic anemia; myelodysplastic syndromes; mesenchymal stem cells; bone marrow; microenvironment; hematopoietic stem cell transplant
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MDPI and ACS Style

Fattizzo, B.; Giannotta, J.A.; Barcellini, W. Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Aplastic Anemia and Myelodysplastic Syndromes: The “Seed and Soil” Crosstalk. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21, 5438. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21155438

AMA Style

Fattizzo B, Giannotta JA, Barcellini W. Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Aplastic Anemia and Myelodysplastic Syndromes: The “Seed and Soil” Crosstalk. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2020; 21(15):5438. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21155438

Chicago/Turabian Style

Fattizzo, Bruno; Giannotta, Juri A.; Barcellini, Wilma. 2020. "Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Aplastic Anemia and Myelodysplastic Syndromes: The “Seed and Soil” Crosstalk" Int. J. Mol. Sci. 21, no. 15: 5438. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21155438

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