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Open AccessReview

New Biomarkers in Acute Tubulointerstitial Nephritis: A Novel Approach to a Classic Condition

1
Bellvitge University Hospital, Nephrology Department, Hospitalet de Llobregat, 08907 Barcelona, Spain
2
IDIBELL Biomedical Research Institute, Hospitalet de Llobregat, 08907 Barcelona, Spain
3
Clinical Sciences Department, Campus de Bellvitge, Barcelona University, Hospitalet de Llobregat, 08907 Barcelona, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(13), 4690; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21134690
Received: 10 June 2020 / Revised: 28 June 2020 / Accepted: 29 June 2020 / Published: 30 June 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomarkers of Renal Diseases)
Acute tubulointerstitial nephritis (ATIN) is an immunomediated cause of acute kidney injury. The prevalence of ATIN among the causes of acute kidney injury (AKI) is not negligible, especially those cases related to certain drugs. To date, there is a lack of reliable non-invasive diagnostic and follow-up markers. The gold standard for diagnosis is kidney biopsy, which shows a pattern of tubulointerstitial leukocyte infiltrate. The urinalysis findings can aid in the diagnosis but are no longer considered sensitive or specific. Atthe present time, there is a rising attentiveness tofinding trustworthy biomarkers of the disease, with special focus in urinary cytokines and chemokines that may reflect kidney local inflammation. Cell-based tests are of notable interest to identify the exact drug involved in hypersensitivity reactions to drugs, manifesting as ATIN. Certain single-nucleotide polymorphisms in HLA or cytokine genes may confer susceptibility to the disease according to pathophysiological basis. In this review, we aim to critically examine and summarize the available evidence on this topic. View Full-Text
Keywords: acute tubulointerstitial nephritis; immunology; biomarkers acute tubulointerstitial nephritis; immunology; biomarkers
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MDPI and ACS Style

Martinez Valenzuela, L.; Draibe, J.; Fulladosa, X.; Torras, J. New Biomarkers in Acute Tubulointerstitial Nephritis: A Novel Approach to a Classic Condition. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21, 4690.

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