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Open AccessArticle

Astaxanthin Ameliorates Ischemic-Hypoxic-Induced Neurotrophin Receptor p75 Upregulation in the Endothelial Cells of Neonatal Mouse Brains

by Min-Hsun Kuo 1,2,†, Hung-Fu Lee 3,†, Yi-Fang Tu 4, Li-Hsuan Lin 2, Ya-Yun Cheng 2 and Hsueh-Te Lee 1,2,5,*
1
Taiwan International Graduate Program in Molecular Medicine, National Yang-Ming University and Academia Sinica, Taipei 11529, Taiwan
2
Institute of Anatomy and Cell Biology, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei 11202, Taiwan
3
Department of Neurosurgery, Cheng Hsin General Hospital, Taipei 11202, Taiwan
4
Department of Pediatrics, National Cheng Kung University Hospital, Colleague of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 70403, Taiwan
5
Taiwan International Graduate Program in Interdisciplinary Neuroscience, National Yang-Ming University and Academia Sinica, Taipei 11529, Taiwan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors equally contributed to this work.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(24), 6168; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20246168
Received: 25 October 2019 / Revised: 27 November 2019 / Accepted: 3 December 2019 / Published: 6 December 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Small Vessel Disease: A Whole Brain Disease)
Ischemic stroke is a leading cause of human death in present times. Two phases of pathological impact occur during an ischemic stroke, namely, ischemia and reperfusion. Both periods include individual characteristic effects on cell injury and apoptosis. Moreover, these conditions can cause severe cell defects and harm the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Also, the BBB components are the major targets in ischemia-reperfusion injury. The BBB owes its enhanced protective roles to capillary endothelial cells, which maintain BBB permeability. One of the nerve growth factor (NGF) receptors initiating cell signaling, once activated, is the p75 neurotrophin receptor (p75NTR). This receptor is involved in both the survival and apoptosis of neurons. Although many studies have attempted to explain the role of p75NTR in neurons, the mechanisms in endothelial cells remain unclear. Endothelial cells are the first cells to encounter p75NTR stimuli. In this study, we found the upregulated p75NTR expression and reductive expression of tight junction proteins after in vivo and in vitro ischemia-reperfusion injury. Moreover, astaxanthin (AXT), an antioxidant drug, was utilized and was found to reduce p75NTR expression and the number of apoptotic cells. This study verified that p75NTR plays a prominent role in endothelial cell death and provides a novel downstream target for AXT. View Full-Text
Keywords: hypoxic-ischemia-reperfusion; brain; endothelial cells; p75NTR; AXT hypoxic-ischemia-reperfusion; brain; endothelial cells; p75NTR; AXT
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MDPI and ACS Style

Kuo, M.-H.; Lee, H.-F.; Tu, Y.-F.; Lin, L.-H.; Cheng, Y.-Y.; Lee, H.-T. Astaxanthin Ameliorates Ischemic-Hypoxic-Induced Neurotrophin Receptor p75 Upregulation in the Endothelial Cells of Neonatal Mouse Brains. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20, 6168.

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