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Open AccessArticle

Integration of Epigallocatechin Gallate in Gelatin Sponges Attenuates Matrix Metalloproteinase-Dependent Degradation and Increases Bone Formation

1
Department of Oral Implantology, Osaka Dental University, 1-5-17, Otemae, Chuo-ku, Osaka 540-0008, Japan
2
Institute of Dental Research, Osaka Dental University, 8-1, Kuzuhahanazonocho, Hirakata, Osaka 573-1121, Japan
3
Graduate School of Science and Technology, Kyoto Institute of Technology, Matsugasaki, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8585, Japan
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(23), 6042; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20236042
Received: 19 September 2019 / Revised: 22 November 2019 / Accepted: 27 November 2019 / Published: 30 November 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Functional Materials for Bone Regeneration: Biomaterials and Cells)
Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and MMP-9 are well-known gelatinases that disrupt the extracellular matrix, including gelatin. However, the advantages of modulating MMP expression in gelatin-based materials for applications in bone regenerative medicine have not been fully clarified. In this study, we examined the effects of epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), a major polyphenol catechin isolated from green tea, on MMP expression in gelatin sponges and its association with bone formation. Four gelatin sponges with or without EGCG were prepared and implanted into bone defects for up to 4 weeks. Histological and immunohistological staining were performed. Micro-computed tomography was used to estimate the bone-forming capacity of each sponge. Our results showed that EGCG integration attenuated MMP-2 (70.6%) and -9 expression (69.1%) in the 1 week group, increased residual gelatin (118.7%), and augmented bone formation (101.8%) in the 4 weeks group in critical-sized bone defects of rat calvaria compared with vacuum-heated gelatin sponges without EGCG. Moreover, vacuum-heated gelatin sponges with EGCG showed superior bone formation compared with other sponges. The results indicated that integration of EGCG in gelatin-based materials modulated the production and activity of MMP-2 and -9 in vivo, thereby enhancing bone-forming capacity. View Full-Text
Keywords: catechin; bone formation; anti-inflammatory reaction; matrix metalloproteinase; biomaterials catechin; bone formation; anti-inflammatory reaction; matrix metalloproteinase; biomaterials
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MDPI and ACS Style

Huang, A.; Honda, Y.; Li, P.; Tanaka, T.; Baba, S. Integration of Epigallocatechin Gallate in Gelatin Sponges Attenuates Matrix Metalloproteinase-Dependent Degradation and Increases Bone Formation. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20, 6042.

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