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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(2), 306; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20020306

G-Protein Coupled Estrogen Receptor in Breast Cancer

1
Ph.D. Program in Medical Biotechnology, College of Medical Science and Technology, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 110, Taiwan
2
Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Sun Yat-Sen Cancer Center, Taipei 112, Taiwan
3
Department of Medicine, National Yang-Ming University Medical School, Taipei 112, Taiwan
4
Department of Medical Oncology, Sun Yat-Sen Cancer Center, Taipei 112, Taiwan
5
School of Medical Laboratory Science and Biotechnology, College of Medical Science and Technology, Taipei Medical University, 250 Wu-Hsing Street, Taipei 110, Taiwan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 29 November 2018 / Revised: 10 January 2019 / Accepted: 12 January 2019 / Published: 14 January 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sex Hormone Receptor Signals in Human Malignancies)
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Abstract

The G-protein coupled estrogen receptor (GPER), an alternate estrogen receptor (ER) with a structure distinct from the two canonical ERs, being ERα, and ERβ, is expressed in 50% to 60% of breast cancer tissues and has been presumed to be associated with the development of tamoxifen resistance in ERα positive breast cancer. On the other hand, triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) constitutes 15% to 20% of breast cancers and frequently displays a more aggressive behavior. GPER is prevalent and involved in TNBC and can be a therapeutic target. However, contradictory results exist regarding the function of GPER in breast cancer, proliferative or pro-apoptotic. A better understanding of the GPER, its role in breast cancer, and the interactions with the ER and epidermal growth factor receptor will be beneficial for the disease management and prevention in the future. View Full-Text
Keywords: breast cancer; epidermal growth factor receptor; estrogen; estrogen receptor; G-protein coupled estrogen receptor breast cancer; epidermal growth factor receptor; estrogen; estrogen receptor; G-protein coupled estrogen receptor
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Hsu, L.-H.; Chu, N.-M.; Lin, Y.-F.; Kao, S.-H. G-Protein Coupled Estrogen Receptor in Breast Cancer. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20, 306.

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