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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(2), 259; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20020259

Continuous Passive Motion Promotes and Maintains Chondrogenesis in Autologous Endothelial Progenitor Cell-Loaded Porous PLGA Scaffolds during Osteochondral Defect Repair in a Rabbit Model

1
Department of Biomedical Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan City 70101, Taiwan
2
Department of Sports Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung City 80708, Taiwan
3
Department of Orthopedics, China Medical University Hospital, Taichung 40447, Taiwan
4
Medical Device Innovation Center, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan City 70101, Taiwan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 7 December 2018 / Revised: 27 December 2018 / Accepted: 2 January 2019 / Published: 10 January 2019
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Abstract

Continuous passive motion (CPM) is widely used after total knee replacement. In this study, we investigated the effect of CPM combined with cell-based construct-transplantation in osteochondral tissue engineering. We created osteochondral defects (3 mm in diameter and 3 mm in depth) in the medial femoral condyle of 36 knees and randomized them into three groups: ED (empty defect), EPC/PLGA (endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) seeded in the poly lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA) scaffold), or EPC/PLGA/CPM (EPC/PLGA scaffold complemented with CPM starting one day after transplantation). We investigated the effects of CPM and the EPC/PLGA constructs on tissue restoration in weight-bearing sites by histological observation and micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) evaluation 4 and 12 weeks after implantation. After CPM, the EPC/PLGA construct exhibited early osteochondral regeneration and prevention of subchondral bone overgrowth and cartilage degeneration. CPM did not alter the microenvironment created by the construct; it up-regulated the expression of the extracellular matrix components (glycosaminoglycan and collagen), down-regulated bone formation, and induced the biosynthesis of lubricin, which appeared in the EPC/PLGA/CPM group after 12 weeks. CPM can provide promoting signals during osteochondral tissue engineering and achieve a synergistic effect when combined with EPC/PLGA transplantation, so it should be considered a non-invasive treatment to be adopted in clinical practices. View Full-Text
Keywords: continuous passive motion; osteochondral tissue engineering; PLGA scaffolds; epithelial progenitor cells continuous passive motion; osteochondral tissue engineering; PLGA scaffolds; epithelial progenitor cells
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Wang, H.-C.; Lin, T.-H.; Chang, N.-J.; Hsu, H.-C.; Yeh, M.-L. Continuous Passive Motion Promotes and Maintains Chondrogenesis in Autologous Endothelial Progenitor Cell-Loaded Porous PLGA Scaffolds during Osteochondral Defect Repair in a Rabbit Model. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20, 259.

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