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Open AccessArticle

MAPK Pathway under Chronic Copper Excess in Green Macroalgae (Chlorophyta): Involvement in the Regulation of Detoxification Mechanisms

1
Laboratory of Aquatic Environmental Research, Centro de Estudios Avanzados, Universidad de Playa Ancha, Viña del Mar 2520000, Chile
2
HUB-AMBIENTAL UPLA, Universidad de Playa Ancha, Valparaíso 2340000, Chile
3
Doctorado Interdisciplinario en Ciencias Ambientales, Facultad de Ciencias Naturales y Exactas, Universidad de Playa Ancha, Valparaíso 2340000, Chile
4
Doctorado en Ciencias del Mar y Biología Aplicada, Departamento de Ciencias del Mar y Biología Aplicada, Universidad de Alicante, 03080 Alicante, Spain
5
Laboratory of Environmental and Analytical Chemistry, Instituto de Química y Bioquímica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Valparaíso, Valparaíso 234000, Chile
6
Departamento de Ciencias del Mar y Biología Aplicada, Universidad de Alicante, 03080 Alicante, Spain
7
School of Biological and Marine Sciences, University of Plymouth, PL4 8AA Plymouth, UK
8
Laboratory of Marine Biotechnology, Facultad de Química y Biología, Universidad de Santiago de Chile, Santiago 9170020, Chile
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(18), 4546; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20184546
Received: 18 July 2019 / Revised: 1 September 2019 / Accepted: 1 September 2019 / Published: 13 September 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Heavy Metals Accumulation, Toxicity and Detoxification in Plants)
Following the physiological complementary/parallel Celis-Plá et al., by inhibiting extracellular signal regulated kinases (ERK), c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNK), and cytokinin specific binding protein (p38), we assessed the role of the mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) pathway in detoxification responses mediated by chronic copper (10 µM) in U. compressa. Parameters were taken at 6, 24, and 48 h, and 6 days (d). H2O2 and lipid peroxidation under copper and inhibition of ERK, JNK, or p38 alone increased but recovered by the sixth day. By blocking two or more MAPKs under copper, H2O2 and lipid peroxidation decayed even below controls. Inhibition of more than one MAPK (at 6 d) caused a decrease in total glutathione (reduced glutathione (GSH) + oxidised glutathione (GSSG)) and ascorbate (reduced ascorbate (ASC) + dehydroascorbate (DHA)), although in the latter it did not occur when the whole MAPK was blocked. Catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), thioredoxin (TRX) ascorbate peroxidase (APX), dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR), and glutathione synthase (GS), were downregulated when blocking more than one MAPK pathway. When one MAPK pathway was blocked under copper, a recovery and even enhancement of detoxification mechanisms was observed, likely due to crosstalk within the MAPKs and/or other signalling processes. In contrast, when more than one MAPK pathway were blocked under copper, impairment of detoxification defences occurred, demonstrating that MAPKs were key signalling mechanisms for detoxification in macroalgae. View Full-Text
Keywords: mitogen-activated protein kinases; Ulva compressa; antioxidant; oxidative stress; metal chelator mitogen-activated protein kinases; Ulva compressa; antioxidant; oxidative stress; metal chelator
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Rodríguez-Rojas, F.; Celis-Plá, P.S.M.; Méndez, L.; Moenne, F.; Muñoz, P.T.; Lobos, M.G.; Díaz, P.; Sánchez-Lizaso, J.L.; Brown, M.T.; Moenne, A.; Sáez, C.A. MAPK Pathway under Chronic Copper Excess in Green Macroalgae (Chlorophyta): Involvement in the Regulation of Detoxification Mechanisms. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20, 4546.

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