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MAPK Pathway under Chronic Copper Excess in Green Macroalgae (Chlorophyta): Involvement in the Regulation of Detoxification Mechanisms
Open AccessArticle

MAPK Pathway under Chronic Copper Excess in Green Macroalgae (Chlorophyta): Influence on Metal Exclusion/Extrusion Mechanisms and Photosynthesis

1
Laboratory of Aquatic Environmental Research, Centro de Estudios Avanzados, Universidad de Playa Ancha, Viña del Mar 2520000, Chile
2
Doctorado Interdisciplinario en Ciencias Ambientales, Facultad de Ciencias Naturales y Exactas, Universidad de Playa Ancha, Valparaíso 2340000, Chile
3
Doctorado en Ciencias del Mar y Biología Aplicada, Departamento de Ciencias del Mar y Biología Aplicada, Universidad de Alicante, 03080 Alicante, Spain
4
Laboratory of Environmental and Analytical Chemistry, Instituto de Química y Bioquímica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Valparaíso, Valparaíso 234000, Chile
5
Departamento de Ciencias del Mar y Biología Aplicada, Universidad de Alicante, 03080 Alicante, Spain
6
School of Biological and Marine Sciences, University of Plymouth, Plymouth PL4 8AA, UK
7
Laboratory of Marine Biotechnology, Facultad de Química y Biología, Universidad de Santiago de Chile, Santiago 9170020, Chile
8
HUB-AMBIENTAL UPLA, Universidad de Playa Ancha, Valparaíso 2340000, Chile
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(18), 4547; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20184547
Received: 8 July 2019 / Revised: 8 September 2019 / Accepted: 9 September 2019 / Published: 13 September 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Heavy Metals Accumulation, Toxicity and Detoxification in Plants)
There is currently no information regarding the role that whole mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways play in counteracting environmental stress in photosynthetic organisms. To address this gap, we exposed Ulva compressa to chronic levels of copper (10 µM) specific inhibitors of Extracellular Signal Regulated Kinases (ERK), c-Jun N-terminal Kinases (JNK), and Cytokinin Specific Binding Protein (p38) MAPKs alone or in combination. Intracellular copper accumulation and photosynthetic activity (in vivo chlorophyll a fluorescence) were measured after 6 h, 24 h, 48 h, and 6 days of exposure. By day 6, when one (except JNK) or more of the MAPK pathways were inhibited under copper stress, there was a decrease in copper accumulation compared with algae exposed to copper alone. When at least two MAPKs were blocked, there was a decrease in photosynthetic activity expressed in lower productivity (ETRmax), efficiency (αETR), and saturation of irradiance (EkETR), accompanied by higher non-photochemical quenching (NPQmax), compared to both the control and copper-only treatments. In terms of accumulation, once the MAPK pathways were partially or completely blocked under copper, there was crosstalk between these and other signaling mechanisms to enhance metal extrusion/exclusion from cells. Crosstalk occurred among MAPK pathways to maintain photosynthesis homeostasis, demonstrating the importance of the signaling pathways for physiological performance. This study is complemented by a parallel/complementary article Rodríguez-Rojas et al. on the role of MAPKs in copper-detoxification. View Full-Text
Keywords: in vivo chlorophyll a florescence; physiology; mitogen activated protein kinases; Ulva compressa; metal accumulation in vivo chlorophyll a florescence; physiology; mitogen activated protein kinases; Ulva compressa; metal accumulation
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Celis-Plá, P.S.M.; Rodríguez-Rojas, F.; Méndez, L.; Moenne, F.; Muñoz, P.T.; Lobos, M.G.; Díaz, P.; Sánchez-Lizaso, J.L.; Brown, M.T.; Moenne, A.; Sáez, C.A. MAPK Pathway under Chronic Copper Excess in Green Macroalgae (Chlorophyta): Influence on Metal Exclusion/Extrusion Mechanisms and Photosynthesis. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20, 4547.

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