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Open AccessArticle

Physiologically Relevant Alternative Carbon Sources Modulate Biofilm Formation, Cell Wall Architecture, and the Stress and Antifungal Resistance of Candida glabrata

1
Department of Medical Microbiology and Parasitology, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang 43400 UPM, Selangor, Malaysia
2
Department of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang 43400 UPM, Selangor, Malaysia
3
Department of Biomedical Sciences, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang 43400 UPM, Selangor, Malaysia
4
Infectomics Cluster, Advanced Medical and Dental Institute, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Kepala Batas 13200, Pulau Pinang, Malaysia
5
MRC Centre for Medical Mycology at the University of Aberdeen, Institute of Medical Sciences, Foresterhill, Aberdeen AB25 2ZD, UK
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(13), 3172; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20133172
Received: 12 April 2019 / Revised: 21 May 2019 / Accepted: 29 May 2019 / Published: 28 June 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Molecular Microbiology)
Flexibility in carbon metabolism is pivotal for the survival and propagation of many human fungal pathogens within host niches. Indeed, flexible carbon assimilation enhances pathogenicity and affects the immunogenicity of Candida albicans. Over the last decade, Candida glabrata has emerged as one of the most common and problematic causes of invasive candidiasis. Despite this, the links between carbon metabolism, fitness, and pathogenicity in C. glabrata are largely unexplored. Therefore, this study has investigated the impact of alternative carbon metabolism on the fitness and pathogenic attributes of C. glabrata. We confirm our previous observation that growth on carbon sources other than glucose, namely acetate, lactate, ethanol, or oleate, attenuates both the planktonic and biofilm growth of C. glabrata, but that biofilms are not significantly affected by growth on glycerol. We extend this by showing that C. glabrata cells grown on these alternative carbon sources undergo cell wall remodeling, which reduces the thickness of their β-glucan and chitin inner layer while increasing their outer mannan layer. Furthermore, alternative carbon sources modulated the oxidative stress resistance of C. glabrata as well as the resistance of C. glabrata to an antifungal drug. In short, key fitness and pathogenic attributes of C. glabrata are shown to be dependent on carbon source. This reaffirms the perspective that the nature of the carbon sources available within specific host niches is crucial for C. glabrata pathogenicity during infection. View Full-Text
Keywords: Candida glabrata; biofilms; cell wall; antifungal resistance; metabolic adaptation; metabolism; alternative carbon metabolism; pathogenicity Candida glabrata; biofilms; cell wall; antifungal resistance; metabolic adaptation; metabolism; alternative carbon metabolism; pathogenicity
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MDPI and ACS Style

Chew, S.Y.; Ho, K.L.; Cheah, Y.K.; Sandai, D.; Brown, A.J.P.; Than, L.T.L. Physiologically Relevant Alternative Carbon Sources Modulate Biofilm Formation, Cell Wall Architecture, and the Stress and Antifungal Resistance of Candida glabrata. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20, 3172. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20133172

AMA Style

Chew SY, Ho KL, Cheah YK, Sandai D, Brown AJP, Than LTL. Physiologically Relevant Alternative Carbon Sources Modulate Biofilm Formation, Cell Wall Architecture, and the Stress and Antifungal Resistance of Candida glabrata. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2019; 20(13):3172. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20133172

Chicago/Turabian Style

Chew, Shu Y.; Ho, Kok L.; Cheah, Yoke K.; Sandai, Doblin; Brown, Alistair J.P.; Than, Leslie T.L. 2019. "Physiologically Relevant Alternative Carbon Sources Modulate Biofilm Formation, Cell Wall Architecture, and the Stress and Antifungal Resistance of Candida glabrata" Int. J. Mol. Sci. 20, no. 13: 3172. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20133172

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