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Open AccessArticle

Marek’s Disease Virus Infection Induced Mitochondria Changes in Chickens

1
Institute of Animal Husbandry and Veterinary Medicine, Beijing Academy of Agriculture and Forestry Sciences, Beijing 100094, China
2
Department of Animal and Avian Sciences, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20740, USA
3
USDA, Agriculture Research Service, Avian Disease and Oncology Laboratory, East Lansing, MI 48823, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(13), 3150; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20133150
Received: 23 May 2019 / Revised: 24 June 2019 / Accepted: 26 June 2019 / Published: 27 June 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Exploring the Genotype–Phenotype Map: Regulatory Pathways)
Mitochondria are crucial cellular organelles in eukaryotes and participate in many cell processes including immune response, growth development, and tumorigenesis. Marek’s disease (MD), caused by an avian alpha-herpesvirus Marek’s disease virus (MDV), is characterized with lymphomas and immunosuppression. In this research, we hypothesize that mitochondria may play roles in response to MDV infection. To test it, mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) abundance and gene expression in immune organs were examined in two well-defined and highly inbred lines of chickens, the MD-susceptible line 72 and the MD-resistant line 63. We found that mitochondrial DNA contents decreased significantly at the transformation phase in spleen of the MD-susceptible line 72 birds in contrast to the MD-resistant line 63. The mtDNA-genes and the nucleus-genes relevant to mtDNA maintenance and transcription, however, were significantly up-regulated. Interestingly, we found that POLG2 might play a potential role that led to the imbalance of mtDNA copy number and gene expression alteration. MDV infection induced imbalance of mitochondrial contents and gene expression, demonstrating the indispensability of mitochondria in virus-induced cell transformation and subsequent lymphoma formation, such as MD development in chicken. This is the first report on relationship between virus infection and mitochondria in chicken, which provides important insights into the understanding on pathogenesis and tumorigenesis due to viral infection. View Full-Text
Keywords: Marek’s disease virus; mitochondrial DNA copy number; gene expression; immune response; T cell transformation Marek’s disease virus; mitochondrial DNA copy number; gene expression; immune response; T cell transformation
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Chu, Q.; Ding, Y.; Cai, W.; Liu, L.; Zhang, H.; Song, J. Marek’s Disease Virus Infection Induced Mitochondria Changes in Chickens. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20, 3150.

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