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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(1), 164; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20010164

Protective Effects and Mechanisms of N-Phenethyl Caffeamide from UVA-Induced Skin Damage in Human Epidermal Keratinocytes through Nrf2/HO-1 Regulation

1
Department of Cosmeceutics, China Medical University, Taichung 40402, Taiwan
2
Department of Dermatology, China Medical University Hospital, Taichung 40402, Taiwan
3
School of Medicine, China Medical University, Taichung 40402, Taiwan
4
Ph.D Program for Biotechnology Industry, China Medical University, Taichung 40402, Taiwan
5
Department of Biotechnology, Asia University, Taichung 41354, Taiwan
6
Department of Chinese Pharmaceutical Sciences and Chinese Medicine Resources, China Medical University, Taichung 40402, Taiwan
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 22 November 2018 / Revised: 24 December 2018 / Accepted: 27 December 2018 / Published: 4 January 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Bioactives and Nutraceuticals)
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Abstract

The skin provides an effective barrier against physical, chemical, and microbial invasion; however, overexposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation causes excessive cellular oxidative stress, which leads to skin damage, DNA damage, mutations, and skin cancer. This study investigated the protective effects of N-phenethyl caffeamide (K36) from UVA damage on human epidermal keratinocytes. We found that K36 reduced UVA-induced intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and induced the expression of the intrinsic antioxidant enzyme heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) by increasing the translocation of nuclear factor erythroid 2–related factor 2 (Nrf2). K36 could inhibit the phosphorylation of extracellular-signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNK) and reduce UVA-induced matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-1 and MMP-2 overexpression; it could also elevate the expression of tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMP). In addition, K36 ameliorated 8-hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) induced by UVA irradiation. Furthermore, K36 could downregulate the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) and the subsequent production of nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2). Based on our findings, K36 possessed potent antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antiphotodamage, and even antiphotocarcinogenesis activities. Thus, K36 has the potential to be used to multifunctional skin care products and drugs. View Full-Text
Keywords: N-phenethyl caffeamide; photodamage; photoinflammation; heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1); nuclear factor erythroid 2–related factor 2 (Nrf2); 8-hydroxy-2’-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) N-phenethyl caffeamide; photodamage; photoinflammation; heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1); nuclear factor erythroid 2–related factor 2 (Nrf2); 8-hydroxy-2’-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG)
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Chu, Y.; Wu, P.-Y.; Chen, C.-W.; Lyu, J.-L.; Liu, Y.-J.; Wen, K.-C.; Lin, C.-Y.; Kuo, Y.-H.; Chiang, H.-M. Protective Effects and Mechanisms of N-Phenethyl Caffeamide from UVA-Induced Skin Damage in Human Epidermal Keratinocytes through Nrf2/HO-1 Regulation. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20, 164.

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