Next Article in Journal
A Microtube Array Membrane (MTAM) Encapsulated Live Fermenting Staphylococcus epidermidis as a Skin Probiotic Patch against Cutibacterium acnes
Next Article in Special Issue
Mechanotransduction and Cytoskeleton Remodeling Shaping YAP1 in Gastric Tumorigenesis
Previous Article in Journal
Genome-Wide Analysis of Watermelon HSP20s and Their Expression Profiles and Subcellular Locations under Stresses
Previous Article in Special Issue
Types of Gastric Carcinomas
Article Menu
Issue 1 (January-1) cover image

Export Article

An updated version is available. Download PDF

Open AccessReview

From Tumor Immunology to Immunotherapy in Gastric and Esophageal Cancer

1
Department of Oncology, Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry, Palacky University, Hnevotinska 976/3, 775 15 Olomouc, Czech Republic
2
Department of Surgery, Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry, Palacky University, Hnevotinska 976/3, 775 15 Olomouc, Czech Republic
3
National Institute for Health and Care Excellence, London SW1A 2BU, UK
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(1), 13; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20010013
Received: 24 November 2018 / Revised: 15 December 2018 / Accepted: 17 December 2018 / Published: 20 December 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gastric Cancers: Molecular Pathways and Candidate Biomarkers)
  |  
PDF [500 KB, uploaded 15 January 2019]
  |  

Abstract

Esophageal and gastric cancers represent tumors with poor prognosis. Unfortunately, radiotherapy, chemotherapy, and targeted therapy have made only limited progress in recent years in improving the generally disappointing outcome. Immunotherapy with checkpoint inhibitors is a novel treatment approach that quickly entered clinical practice in malignant melanoma and renal cell cancer, but the role in esophageal and gastric cancer is still poorly defined. The principal prognostic/predictive biomarkers for immunotherapy efficacy currently considered are PD-L1 expression along with defects in mismatch repair genes resulting in microsatellite instability (MSI-H) phenotype. The new molecular classification of gastric cancer also takes these factors into consideration. Available reports regarding PD-1, PD-L1, PD-L2 expression and MSI status in gastric and esophageal cancer are reviewed to summarize the clinical prognostic and predictive role together with potential clinical implications. The most important recently published clinical trials evaluating checkpoint inhibitor efficacy in these tumors are also summarized. View Full-Text
Keywords: esophageal cancer; gastric cancer; immunotherapy; checkpoint inhibitors; microsatellite instability esophageal cancer; gastric cancer; immunotherapy; checkpoint inhibitors; microsatellite instability
Figures

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
SciFeed

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Vrána, D.; Matzenauer, M.; Neoral, Č.; Aujeský, R.; Vrba, R.; Melichar, B.; Rušarová, N.; Bartoušková, M.; Jankowski, J. From Tumor Immunology to Immunotherapy in Gastric and Esophageal Cancer. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20, 13.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Int. J. Mol. Sci. EISSN 1422-0067 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top