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Open AccessArticle

Effects of Graphene Oxide Nanofilm and Chicken Embryo Muscle Extract on Muscle Progenitor Cell Differentiation and Contraction

1
Department of Nanobiotechnology and Experimental Ecology, Institute of Biology, Warsaw University of Life Sciences, 02-787 Warsaw, Poland
2
Spectrometry Laboratory, Institute of Biochemistry and Biophysics, Polish Academy of Science, 02-106 Warsaw, Poland
3
Department of Chemistry, Institute of Food Sciences, Warsaw University of Life Sciences, 02-787 Warsaw, Poland
4
Department of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, University of Copenhagen, 1870 Frederiksberg, Denmark
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Molecules 2020, 25(8), 1991; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25081991
Received: 14 March 2020 / Revised: 18 April 2020 / Accepted: 22 April 2020 / Published: 23 April 2020
(This article belongs to the Section Medicinal Chemistry)
Finding an effective muscle regeneration technique is a priority for regenerative medicine. It is known that the key factors determining tissue formation include cells, capable of proliferating and/or differentiating, a niche (surface) allowing their colonization and growth factors. The interaction between these factors, especially between the surface of the artificial niche and growth factors, is not entirely clear. Moreover, it seems that the use of a complex of complementary growth factors instead of a few strictly defined ones could increase the effectiveness of tissue maturation, including muscle tissue. In this study, we evaluated whether graphene oxide (GO) nanofilm, chicken embryo muscle extract (CEME), and GO combined with CEME would affect the differentiation and functional maturation of muscle precursor cells, as well as the ability to spontaneously contract a pseudo-tissue muscle. CEME was extracted on day 18 of embryogenesis. Muscle cells obtained from an 8-day-old chicken embryo limb bud were treated with GO and CEME. Cell morphology and differentiation were observed using different microscopy methods. Cytotoxicity and viability of cells were measured by lactate dehydrogenase and Vybrant Cell Proliferation assays. Gene expression of myogenic regulatory genes was measured by Real-Time PCR. Our results demonstrate that CEME, independent of the culture surface, was the main factor influencing the intense differentiation of muscle progenitor cells. The present results, for the first time, clearly demonstrated that the cultured tissue-like structure was capable of inducing contractions without externally applied impulses. It has been indicated that a small amount of CEME in media (about 1%) allows the culture of pseudo-tissue muscle capable of spontaneous contraction. The study showed that the graphene oxide may be used as a niche for differentiating muscle cells, but the decisive influence on the maturation of muscle tissue, especially muscle contractions, depends on the complexity of the applied growth factors. View Full-Text
Keywords: graphene oxide; in vitro; muscle contraction; myotube formation; tissue extract graphene oxide; in vitro; muscle contraction; myotube formation; tissue extract
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MDPI and ACS Style

Bałaban, J.; Wierzbicki, M.; Zielińska, M.; Szczepaniak, J.; Sosnowska, M.; Daniluk, K.; Cysewski, D.; Koczoń, P.; Chwalibog, A.; Sawosz, E. Effects of Graphene Oxide Nanofilm and Chicken Embryo Muscle Extract on Muscle Progenitor Cell Differentiation and Contraction. Molecules 2020, 25, 1991. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25081991

AMA Style

Bałaban J, Wierzbicki M, Zielińska M, Szczepaniak J, Sosnowska M, Daniluk K, Cysewski D, Koczoń P, Chwalibog A, Sawosz E. Effects of Graphene Oxide Nanofilm and Chicken Embryo Muscle Extract on Muscle Progenitor Cell Differentiation and Contraction. Molecules. 2020; 25(8):1991. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25081991

Chicago/Turabian Style

Bałaban, Jaśmina; Wierzbicki, Mateusz; Zielińska, Marlena; Szczepaniak, Jarosław; Sosnowska, Malwina; Daniluk, Karolina; Cysewski, Dominik; Koczoń, Piotr; Chwalibog, André; Sawosz, Ewa. 2020. "Effects of Graphene Oxide Nanofilm and Chicken Embryo Muscle Extract on Muscle Progenitor Cell Differentiation and Contraction" Molecules 25, no. 8: 1991. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25081991

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