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Open AccessArticle

Potential Synergy between Spores of Metarhizium anisopliae and Plant Secondary Metabolite, 1-Chlorooctadecane for Effective Natural Acaricide Development

1
Laboratory of Bio-Control and Molecular Biology, Department of Arid Land Agriculture, College of Agricultural and Food Sciences, King Faisal University, Hofuf 31982, Al-Ahsa, Saudi Arabia
2
Research and Consulting Institute, King Faisal University, Hofuf 31982, Al-Ahsa, Saudi Arabia
3
Ministry of Environment, Water and Agriculture, Riyadh 11442, Saudi Arabia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Giovanni Benelli
Molecules 2020, 25(8), 1900; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25081900
Received: 4 April 2020 / Revised: 18 April 2020 / Accepted: 18 April 2020 / Published: 20 April 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Insecticide, Acaricide, Repellent and Antimicrobial Development)
Date palm dust mites are important pests severely infesting valuable nutritious fruits (dates) of date palm. In search of an alternative to acaricides, joint action of Metarhizium anisopliae EBCL 02049 spores and 1-Chlorooctadecane was evaluated as a potential candidate for the management of Oligonychus afrasiaticus through natural products. In this regard, in vitro tests were performed to evaluate the interaction of M. anisopliae spores with multiple doses of 1-Chlorooctadecane (0.8, 1.6, 2.4, 3.2, and 4.0 mg/mL). Compatibility bioassay results evidenced from vegetative growth (77.7–84.40 mm), sporulation (5.50–7.30 × 106 spores/mL), and germination (96.70–98.20%), revealed that all the tested doses are compatible (biological index > 82) with the spores of M. anisopliae. The impact of combined treatment of spores with 1-Chlorooctadecane in different proportions (Scheme I, II, III, and IV) compared to their sole application against O. afrasiaticus was evaluated by concentration–mortality response bioassays. Results showed that all the combined treatments revealed high mortality compared to the sole application, which showed relatively slow mortality response over time. Toxicity recorded from Scheme IV combinations (80% 1-Chlorooctadecane: 20% Spores), exhibited strong synergistic interaction (joint toxicity = 713). Furthermore, potent interactions have overcome the host antioxidant defense at the final stage of infection by tremendously reducing catalase, and superoxide dismutase activities. These experiments demonstrated fungal–toxin joint synergistic interaction as a promising date palm dust mite management option. View Full-Text
Keywords: antioxidants; compatibility; date palm dust mites; host defense; Oligonychus afrasiaticus; Metarhizium anisopliae; natural acaricide; synergism; 1-Chlorooctadecane antioxidants; compatibility; date palm dust mites; host defense; Oligonychus afrasiaticus; Metarhizium anisopliae; natural acaricide; synergism; 1-Chlorooctadecane
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MDPI and ACS Style

Hussain, A.; AlJabr, A.M. Potential Synergy between Spores of Metarhizium anisopliae and Plant Secondary Metabolite, 1-Chlorooctadecane for Effective Natural Acaricide Development. Molecules 2020, 25, 1900.

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