The bioactivity and biocompatibility play key roles in the success of dental and orthopaedic implants. Although most commercial implant systems use various surface microstructures, the ideal multi-scale topographies capable of controlling osteointegration have not yielded conclusive results. Inspired by both the isotropic adhesion of the skin structures in tree frog toe pads and the anisotropic adhesion of the corrugated ridges on the scales of Morpho butterfly wings, composite micro/nano-structures, including the array of micro-hexagons and oriented nano-ripples on titanium alloy implants, were respectively fabricated by microsecond laser direct writing and femtosecond laser-induced periodic surface structures, to improve cell adherence, alignment and proliferation on implants. The main differences in both the bioactivity in simulated body fluid and the biocompatibility in osteoblastic cell MC3T3 proliferation were measured and analyzed among Ti-6Al-4V samples with smooth surface, micro-hexagons and composite micro/nano-structures, respectively. Of note, bioinspired micro/nano-structures displayed the best bioactivity and biocompatibility after in vitro experiments, and meanwhile, the nano-ripples were able to induce cellular alignment within the micro-hexagons. The reasons for these differences were found in the topographical cues. An innovative functionalization strategy of controlling the osteointegration on titanium alloy implants is proposed using the composite micro/nano-structures, which is meaningful in various regenerative medicine applications and implant fields.
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