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Article

Induction of Apoptosis by Gluconasturtiin-Isothiocyanate (GNST-ITC) in Human Hepatocarcinoma HepG2 Cells and Human Breast Adenocarcinoma MCF-7 Cells

1
UPM-MAKNA Cancer Research Laboratory, Institute of Bioscience, Universiti Putra Malaysia, UPM Serdang, Selangor 43400, Malaysia
2
CREA Consiglio per la ricerca in agricoltura e l’analisi dell’economia agraria, Centro di Ricerca Agricoltura e Ambiente (CREA-AA), 40128 Bologna, Italy
3
Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Surrey, Guildford, Surrey GU2 7XH, UK
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Laboratory of Molecular Biomedicine, Institute of Bioscience, Universiti Putra Malaysia, UPM Serdang, Selangor 43400, Malaysia
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Laboratory of Food Safety and Food Integrity, Institute of Tropical Agriculture and Food Security, Universiti Putra Malaysia, UPM Serdang, Selangor 43400, Malaysia
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Department of Food Science, Faculty of Food Science and Technology, Universiti Putra Malaysia, UPM Serdang, Selangor 43400, Malaysia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Olga Pecháňová
Molecules 2020, 25(5), 1240; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25051240
Received: 12 November 2019 / Revised: 2 December 2019 / Accepted: 5 December 2019 / Published: 9 March 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biological Activity of Natural Substances and Their Derivatives)
Gluconasturtiin, a glucosinolate present in watercress, is hydrolysed by myrosinase to form gluconasturtiin-isothiocyanate (GNST-ITC), which has potential chemopreventive effects; however, the underlying mechanisms of action have not been explored, mainly in human cell lines. The purpose of the study is to evaluate the cytotoxicity of GNST-ITC and to further assess its potential to induce apoptosis. GNST-ITC inhibited cell proliferation in both human hepatocarcinoma (HepG2) and human breast adenocarcinoma (MCF-7) cells with IC50 values of 7.83 µM and 5.02 µM, respectively. Morphological changes as a result of GNST-ITC-induced apoptosis showed chromatin condensation, nuclear fragmentation, and membrane blebbing. Additionally, Annexin V assay showed proportion of cells in early and late apoptosis upon exposure to GNST-ITC in a time-dependent manner. To delineate the mechanism of apoptosis, cell cycle arrest and expression of caspases were studied. GNST-ITC induced a time-dependent G2/M phase arrest, with reduction of 82% and 93% in HepG2 and MCF-7 cell lines, respectively. The same treatment also led to the subsequent expression of caspase-3/7 and -9 in both cells demonstrating mitochondrial-associated cell death. Collectively, these results reveal that GNST-ITC can inhibit cell proliferation and can induce cell death in HepG2 and MCF-7 cancer cells via apoptosis, highlighting its potential development as an anticancer agent. View Full-Text
Keywords: glucosinolate; gluconasturtiin-isothiocyanate; apoptosis; cancer chemoprevention glucosinolate; gluconasturtiin-isothiocyanate; apoptosis; cancer chemoprevention
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MDPI and ACS Style

Arumugam, A.; Ibrahim, M.D.; Kntayya, S.B.; Mohd Ain, N.; Iori, R.; Galletti, S.; Ioannides, C.; Abdull Razis, A.F. Induction of Apoptosis by Gluconasturtiin-Isothiocyanate (GNST-ITC) in Human Hepatocarcinoma HepG2 Cells and Human Breast Adenocarcinoma MCF-7 Cells. Molecules 2020, 25, 1240. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25051240

AMA Style

Arumugam A, Ibrahim MD, Kntayya SB, Mohd Ain N, Iori R, Galletti S, Ioannides C, Abdull Razis AF. Induction of Apoptosis by Gluconasturtiin-Isothiocyanate (GNST-ITC) in Human Hepatocarcinoma HepG2 Cells and Human Breast Adenocarcinoma MCF-7 Cells. Molecules. 2020; 25(5):1240. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25051240

Chicago/Turabian Style

Arumugam, Asvinidevi, Muhammad D. Ibrahim, Saie B. Kntayya, Nooraini Mohd Ain, Renato Iori, Stefania Galletti, Costas Ioannides, and Ahmad F. Abdull Razis 2020. "Induction of Apoptosis by Gluconasturtiin-Isothiocyanate (GNST-ITC) in Human Hepatocarcinoma HepG2 Cells and Human Breast Adenocarcinoma MCF-7 Cells" Molecules 25, no. 5: 1240. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25051240

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