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Article

Influence of Fermentation Water on Stable Isotopic D/H Ratios of Alcohol Obtained from Concentrated Grape Must

1
Fondazione Edmund Mach (FEM), Via Mach 1, 38010 San Michele all’Adige (TN), Italy
2
Center Agriculture Food Environment (C3A), University of Trento, via Mach 1, 38010 San Michele all’Adige (TN), Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Jesus Simal-Gandara
Molecules 2020, 25(14), 3139; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25143139
Received: 18 May 2020 / Revised: 30 June 2020 / Accepted: 3 July 2020 / Published: 9 July 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Isotopic Techniques for Food Science)
According to Organisation Internationale de la vigne et du vin (OIV) standards, when analysing the stable isotope ratio of deuterium to hydrogen D/H at the methyl (I) and methylene (II) site of ethanol from concentrated must, a dilution with tap water is needed in order to carry out the alcoholic fermentation. This dilution causes a partial transfer of water hydrogens to the sugar, and this affects the (D/H)I and (D/H)II isotopic values of ethanol, which need to be normalised through specific equations based on the analysis of water δ18O or δ2H. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness and correctness of these equations experimentally. Grape, cane, and beet sugar, as well as grape must were diluted with water with increasing H and O stable isotope ratios, fermented, and analysed. SNIF-NMR and IRMS techniques were applied following the respective OIV methods. The equations based on the δ2H analysis of the diluted sugar/must solutions proved to be reliable in all the cases, although it is not an OIV standard. When using the equations based on the values of δ18O of the diluted solution, data normalisation was reliable only in cases where the water used for dilution had not undergone isotopic fractionation due, for example, to evaporation. In these cases, δ2H should be analysed. View Full-Text
Keywords: concentrated grape must; SNIF-NMR analysis; dilution; normalisation; GMWL concentrated grape must; SNIF-NMR analysis; dilution; normalisation; GMWL
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MDPI and ACS Style

Perini, M.; Failoni, A.; Simoni, M.; Tonon, A.; Camin, F. Influence of Fermentation Water on Stable Isotopic D/H Ratios of Alcohol Obtained from Concentrated Grape Must. Molecules 2020, 25, 3139. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25143139

AMA Style

Perini M, Failoni A, Simoni M, Tonon A, Camin F. Influence of Fermentation Water on Stable Isotopic D/H Ratios of Alcohol Obtained from Concentrated Grape Must. Molecules. 2020; 25(14):3139. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25143139

Chicago/Turabian Style

Perini, Matteo, Andrea Failoni, Marco Simoni, Agostino Tonon, and Federica Camin. 2020. "Influence of Fermentation Water on Stable Isotopic D/H Ratios of Alcohol Obtained from Concentrated Grape Must" Molecules 25, no. 14: 3139. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25143139

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