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Open AccessArticle

A Novel Approach to Improve Acid Diversion in Carbonate Rocks Using Thermochemical Fluids: Experimental and Numerical Study

1
College of Petroleum Engineering & Geosciences, King Fahd University of Petroleum & Minerals, Dhahran 31261, Saudi Arabia
2
Advanced Research Center (EXPEC ARC), Dhahran 31311, Saudi Arabia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: David Faux
Molecules 2020, 25(13), 2976; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25132976
Received: 1 June 2020 / Revised: 24 June 2020 / Accepted: 26 June 2020 / Published: 28 June 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fluids in Porous Media)
The distribution of acid over all layers of interest is a critical measure of matrix acidizing efficiency. Chemical and mechanical techniques have been widely adapted for enhancing acid diversion. However, it was demonstrated that these often impact the formation with damage after the acid job is completed. This study introduces, for the first time, a novel solution to improve acid diversion using thermochemical fluids. This method involves generating nitrogen gas at the downhole condition, where the generated gas will contribute in diverting the injected acids into low-permeability formations. In this work, both lab-scale numerical and field-scale analytical models were developed to evaluate the performance of the proposed technique. In addition, experimental measurements were carried out in order to demonstrate the application of thermochemical in improving the acid diversion. The results showed that a thermochemical approach has an effective performance in diverting the injected acids into low-permeability rocks. After treatment, continuous wormholes were generated in the high-permeability rocks as well as in low-permeability rocks. The lab-scale model was able to replicate the wormholing impact observed in the lab. In addition, alternating injection of thermochemical and acid fluids reduced the acid volume 3.6 times compared to the single stage of thermochemical injection. Finally, sensitivity analysis indicates that the formation porosity and permeability have major impacts on the acidizing treatment, while the formations pressures have minor effect on the diversion performance. View Full-Text
Keywords: acid diversion; thermochemical fluids; in situ gas generation acid diversion; thermochemical fluids; in situ gas generation
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Ba Alawi, M.; Hassan, A.; Aljawad, M.S.; Kamal, M.S.; Mahmoud, M.; Al-Nakhli, A. A Novel Approach to Improve Acid Diversion in Carbonate Rocks Using Thermochemical Fluids: Experimental and Numerical Study. Molecules 2020, 25, 2976.

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