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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle

Hybrid Nanocellulose-Copper (II) Oxide as Engine Oil Additives for Tribological Behavior Improvement

Faculty of Engineering Technology Mechanical and Automotive, Universiti Malaysia Pahang, Pekan 26600, Pahang, Malaysia
School of Engineering, Edith Cowan University, 270 Joondalup Drive, Joondalup, WA 6027, Australia
College of Engineering, Mechanical department, Universiti Malaysia Pahang, Pekan 26600, Pahang, Malaysia
Research Center for Nano-Materials and Energy Technology (RCNMET), School of Science and Technology, Sunway University, Bandar Sunway, Petaling Jaya 47500, Selangor, Malaysia
Department of Engineering, Lancaster University, Lancaster LA1 4YW, UK
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Ashok Kakkar and Giuseppe Cirillo
Molecules 2020, 25(13), 2975;
Received: 12 May 2020 / Revised: 12 June 2020 / Accepted: 18 June 2020 / Published: 28 June 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanochemistry: Good Beginnings for a Cross-Disciplinary Platform)
Friction and wear are the main factors in the failure of the piston in automobile engines. The objective of this work was to improve the tribological behaviour and lubricant properties using hybrid Cellulose Nanocrystal (CNC) and Copper (II) oxide nanoparticles blended with SAE 40 as a base fluid. The two-step method was used in the hybrid nanofluid preparation. Three different concentrations were prepared in a range of 0.1% to 0.5%. Kinematic viscosity and viscosity index were also identified. The friction and wear behavior were evaluated using a tribometer based on ASTM G181. The CNC-CuO nano lubricant shows a significant improvement in term of viscosity index by 44.3–47.12% while for friction, the coefficient of friction (COF) decreases by 1.5%, respectively, during high and low-speed loads (boundary regime), and 30.95% during a high-speed, and low load (mixed regime). The wear morphologies results also show that a smoother surface was obtained after using CNC-CuO nano lubricant compared to SAE 40. View Full-Text
Keywords: cellulose nanocrystal; copper (II) oxide; friction; wear cellulose nanocrystal; copper (II) oxide; friction; wear
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Hisham, S.; Kadirgama, K.; Mohammed, H.A.; Kumar, A.; Ramasamy, D.; Samykano, M.; Rahman, S. Hybrid Nanocellulose-Copper (II) Oxide as Engine Oil Additives for Tribological Behavior Improvement. Molecules 2020, 25, 2975.

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