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Recent Advances in the Application of Antibacterial Complexes Using Essential Oils
Open AccessArticle

Antimicrobial Activity of Different Artemisia Essential Oil Formulations

1
Department of Laboratory Medicine, University of Pécs, Medical School, 7624 Pécs, Ifjúság u. 13., Hungary
2
János Szentágothai Research Center, University of Pécs, Ifjúság u. 20., 7624 Pécs, Hungary
3
Institute of Pharmaceutical Technology and Biopharmacy, University of Pécs, Faculty of Pharmacy, Rókus u. 2., 7624 Pécs, Hungary
4
Department of Pharmacognosy, University of Pécs, Faculty of Pharmacy, Rókus u. 2., 7624 Pécs, Hungary
5
Chromaleont s.r.l., c/o Department of Chemical, Biological, Pharmaceutical and Environmental Sciences, University of Messina, 98168 Messina, Italy
6
Department of Chemical, Biological, Pharmaceutical and Environmental Sciences, University of Messina, 98168 Messina, Italy
7
Unit of Food Science and Nutrition, Department of Medicine, University Campus Bio-Medico of Rome, 00128 Rome, Italy
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Academic Editor: Daniela Rigano
Molecules 2020, 25(10), 2390; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25102390
Received: 17 April 2020 / Revised: 19 May 2020 / Accepted: 20 May 2020 / Published: 21 May 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Essential Oils as Antimicrobial and Anti-infectious Agents II)
The extreme lipophilicity of essential oils (EOs) impedes the measurement of their biological actions in an aqueous environment. We formulated oil in water type Pickering Artemisia annua EO nanoemulsions (AEP) with surface-modified Stöber silica nanoparticles (20 nm) as the stabilizing agent. The antimicrobial activity of AEP and its effects on mature Candida biofilms were compared with those of Tween 80 stabilized emulsion (AET) and ethanolic solution (AEE) of the Artemisia EO. The antimicrobial activity was evaluated by using the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC90) and minimum effective concentrations (MEC10) of the compounds. On planktonic bacterial and fungal cells beside growth inhibition, colony formation (CFU/mL), metabolic activity, viability, intracellular ATP/total protein (ATP/TP), along with reactive oxygen species (ROS) were also studied. Artemisia annua EO nanoemulsion (AEP) showed significantly higher antimicrobial activity than AET and AEE. Artemisia annua EO nanoemulsions (AEP) generated superoxide anion and peroxides-related oxidative stress, which might be the underlying mode of action of the Artemisia EO. Unilamellar liposomes, as a cellular model, were used to examine the delivery efficacy of the EO of our tested formulations. We could demonstrate higher effectiveness of AEP in the EO components’ donation compared to AET and AEE. Our data suggest the superiority of the AEP formulation against microbial infections. View Full-Text
Keywords: Artemisia essential oil; Pickering emulsion; oxidative stress; mature biofilm; antimicrobial activity Artemisia essential oil; Pickering emulsion; oxidative stress; mature biofilm; antimicrobial activity
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MDPI and ACS Style

Das, S.; Vörös-Horváth, B.; Bencsik, T.; Micalizzi, G.; Mondello, L.; Horváth, G.; Kőszegi, T.; Széchenyi, A. Antimicrobial Activity of Different Artemisia Essential Oil Formulations. Molecules 2020, 25, 2390.

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